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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 6, 2018

Registration No. 333-228020


SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549



AMENDMENT NO. 1
TO

FORM F-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933



360 Finance, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Not Applicable
(Translation of Registrant's name into English)



Cayman Islands
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  6199
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  Not Applicable
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

China Diamond Exchange Center, Building B
No. 555 Pudian Road, No. 1701 Century Avenue
Pudong New Area, Shanghai 200122
People's Republic of China
+86 21 6151-6360
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including
area code, of Registrant's principal executive offices)

Cogency Global Inc.
10 E. 40th Street, 10th Floor
New York, New York, 10016
+1 212 947 7200

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including
area code, of agent for service)



Copies to:

Will H. Cai, Esq.
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP
c/o 42/F, Edinburgh Tower, The Landmark
15 Queen's Road Central
Hong Kong
+852 3740-4700

 

Peter X. Huang, Esq.
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP
c/o 30/F, China World Office 2
No. 1, Jian Guo Men Wai Avenue
Beijing, 100004, China
+86 10 6535-5500

 

David T. Zhang, Esq.
Steve Lin, Esq.
Kirkland & Ellis International LLP
c/o 26/F, Gloucester Tower, The Landmark
15 Queen's Road Central
Hong Kong
+852 3761-3300



Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
as soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.

           If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.    o

           If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

           If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

           If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

           Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.

           Emerging growth company ý

           If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.    o



CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

       
 
Title of each class of
securities to be registered

  Proposed maximum aggregate
offering price(2)(3)

  Amount of
registration fee(4)

 

Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share(1)

  US$200,000,000   US$24,240

 

(1)
American depositary shares issuable upon deposit of class A ordinary shares registered hereby will be registered under a separate registration statement on Form F-6 (Registration No. 333-      ). Each American depositary share represents      class A ordinary shares.

(2)
Includes class A ordinary shares that are issuable upon the exercise of the underwriters' over-allotment option. Also includes class A ordinary shares initially offered and sold outside the United States that may be resold from time to time in the United States either as part of their distribution or within 40 days after the later of the effective date of this registration statement and the date the shares are first bona fide offered to the public. These class A ordinary shares are not being registered for the purpose of sales outside the United States.

(3)
Estimated solely for the purpose of determining the amount of registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933.

(4)
Previously paid.

           The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.


The term "new or revised financial accounting standard" refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

   


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

PROSPECTUS (Subject to Completion) Issued                        , 2018.

American Depositary Shares

LOGO

360 Finance, Inc.

Representing            Class A Ordinary Shares



        360 Finance, Inc. is offering            American depositary shares, or the ADSs. This is our initial public offering and no public market currently exists for the ADSs or our class A ordinary shares. Each ADS represents            of our class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share. It is currently estimated that the initial public offering price per ADS will be between US$            and US$            .



        We intend to apply for the listing of the ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "QFIN."

        We are an "emerging growth company" under applicable U.S. federal securities laws and are eligible for reduced public company reporting requirements.

        Immediately prior to the completion of this offering, our issued and outstanding share capital will consist of class A ordinary shares and class B ordinary shares, and Mr. Hongyi Zhou, the chairman of our board of directors, will beneficially own all of our issued and outstanding class B ordinary shares. These class B ordinary shares will constitute approximately        % of our total issued and outstanding share capital immediately after the completion of this offering and        % of the aggregate voting power of our total issued and outstanding share capital immediately after the completion of this offering, assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option. Holders of class A ordinary shares and class B ordinary shares have the same rights except for voting and conversion rights. Each class A ordinary share is entitled to one vote, and each class B ordinary share is entitled to twenty votes and is convertible into one class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof. Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into class B ordinary shares under any circumstances.

        Investing in the ADSs involves risks. See "Risk Factors" beginning on page 22.



PRICE US$            PER ADS



           
 
 
  Price to Public
  Underwriting
Discounts and
Commissions(1)

  Proceeds to us
 

Per ADS

  US$           US$           US$        
 

Total

  US$           US$           US$        

 

(1)
See "Underwriting" for additional disclosure regarding underwriting compensation payable by us.

        We have granted the underwriters the right to purchase up to an additional            ADSs to cover over-allotments at the initial public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions.

        Neither the United States Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities, or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

        The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs to purchasers on                        , 2018.

Goldman Sachs (Asia) L.L.C.   Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

   

                        , 2018.


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Prospectus Summary

    1  

Risk Factors

    22  

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements and Industry Data

    73  

Use of Proceeds

    75  

Dividend Policy

    76  

Capitalization

    77  

Dilution

    78  

Exchange Rate Information

    80  

Enforceability of Civil Liabilities

    81  

Corporate History and Structure

    83  

Selected Combined and Consolidated Financial and Operating Data

    88  

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

    92  

Industry

    121  

Business

    126  

Regulations

    147  

Management

    162  

Principal Shareholders

    170  

Related Party Transactions

    172  

Description of Share Capital

    174  

Description of American Depositary Shares

    185  

Shares Eligible for Future Sale

    194  

Taxation

    196  

Underwriting

    203  

Expenses Related to this Offering

    212  

Legal Matters

    213  

Experts

    214  

Where You Can Find Additional Information

    215  

Index to Financial Statements

    F-1  



        You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or in any related free writing prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or in any related free writing prospectus. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy the ADSs, only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the ADSs.

        We have not taken any action to permit a public offering of the ADSs outside the United States or to permit the possession or distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the offering of the ADSs and the distribution of the prospectus outside the United States.

        Until                        , 2018 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers that buy, sell or trade ADSs, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to the obligation of dealers to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriters and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

        The following summary is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information and financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to this summary, we urge you to read the entire prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our ADSs discussed under "Risk Factors," before deciding whether to invest in our ADSs. This prospectus contains information from an industry report commissioned by us and prepared by Oliver Wyman, an independent research firm, to provide information regarding our industry and our market position in China.

Overview

        We are a leading digital consumer finance platform and the finance partner of the 360 Group, the successor of Qihoo 360 Technology Co. Ltd.'s business after its privatization in 2016 and one of the largest internet companies in China, connecting over one billion accumulated mobile devices. We provide tailored online consumer finance products to prime, underserved borrowers funded primarily by our funding partners. Our proprietary technology platform enables a unique user experience supported by resolute risk management. When coupled with our 360 Group partnership, our technology translates to a meaningful borrower acquisition, borrower retention and funding advantage, supporting the rapid growth and scaling of our business. From our inception to September 30, 2018, we had facilitated over RMB94.4 billion (US$13.7 billion) in loans to 6.4 million of our borrowers.

        Our core product is an affordable, unsecured, digital line of credit which our borrowers typically utilize for consumption spending and often as a supplement to credit card debt. To apply, potential borrowers complete a simple online application and, for approximately 95% of recent credit applications, a fully automated credit decision is rendered. Approved borrowers are provided access to funds typically within five minutes and may select the loan structure best suited to their consumption needs.

        Our value proposition is an intuitive platform connecting our borrowers and funding partners.

    Borrowers.  Our borrowers tend to be young with demonstrated credit histories, as 74.1% of them hold credit cards. These borrowers are drawn to our platform for instant, transparent access to credit delivered through a simple digital interface. Often we can offer borrowers larger credit balance at lower prices with more variable tenors as compared to other online consumer finance platforms.

    Funding partners.  We enable our funding partners. Majority of our funding comes from our financial institution partners who partner with us for access to our high quality borrower base as well as platform tools including borrower evaluation and matching, workflow automation and enhanced risk management. We delivered value in the form of M3+ delinquency rate of 0.6% as of September 30, 2018 and annual returns typically over 6.5% for our funding partners, materially higher than traditional investment and lending opportunities, according to Oliver Wyman. Our value proposition is further magnified by the repeat lending and cross-sell opportunities we provide to our funding partners. As of September 30, 2018, we had partnership with 18 financial institutions, majority of whom are leading national and regional banks.

        We have developed a proprietary technology platform supporting the full transaction lifecycle from credit application through settlement. The brevity, simplicity and speed of our credit decision process reflects the strength of our data analysis, particularly around identifying fraud, which represents approximately 50% of bad debts industry-wide according to Oliver Wyman. For instance, we employ a robust and highly automated identity authentication process based on facial recognition to filter fraudulent credit applications. Further, our advanced analytical capabilities help translate data into actionable insights, where we have found statistical significance leveraging behavioral and social data sets to assess a potential borrower's ability and willingness to repay a loan. As of September 30, 2018, we employed 332 research, development and risk management staff, representing 48.0% of our total

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employee base, who also collaborate closely with 360 Group, to maintain and enhance our technology leadership.

        Since inception we have grown quickly and consistently. As of September 30, 2018, we had 6.4 million cumulative borrowers with RMB94.4 billion (US$13.7 billion) cumulative loan origination and RMB34.7 billion (US$5.1 billion) outstanding balance, representing compound quarterly growth rate of 97.0%, 115.6% and 95.2%, respectively, since the last quarter of 2016. We generate majority of our revenue through loan facilitation service fees and post-origination service fees as a percentage of loan originations. For the year ended December 31, 2017, we earned RMB309.1 million (US$45.0 million) in net revenue, compared to RMB0.06 million for the period from our inception to December 31, 2016. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018, our net revenue was RMB1,385.6 million (US$201.7 million), compared to RMB74.4 million for the same period of 2017, representing a year-over-year growth of 1,762.4%.

        Our rapid growth coupled with the leverage in our operating model has allowed us to rapidly achieve profitability. For the year ended December 31, 2017 we recorded net loss of RMB166.4 million (US$24.2 million) compared to RMB21.8 million for the period from our inception to December 31, 2016. We were only able to grant options to our employees after our Cayman holding vehicle 360 Finance, Inc. was incorporated in April 2018. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018, we recorded net loss of RMB469.3 million (US$68.3 million), compared to net loss of RMB171.8 million for the same period of 2017. Excluding the effect of share-based compensation, our adjusted net income for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 was RMB60.7 million (US$8.8 million). See "—Summary Combined and Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Non-GAAP Measures" for a reconciliation of adjusted net (loss) income to net loss.

        The charts below present the number of our cumulative borrowers and our cumulative loan origination volume as of the end of the month indicated, and our net revenue, and our net loss for the periods indicated:

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Market Opportunity

        We have formulated our growth strategies around the following trends, which we believe are guiding the development of the China online consumer finance market:

    Unbounded market opportunity.  According to Oliver Wyman, the broader consumer finance market is projected to grow by 23% annually from 2017 through 2022, driven by growth in the number of borrowers and increases in personal leverage, each a function of an emerging consumption driven economy with stronger infrastructure, such as credit scores, to facilitate responsible lending.

    Strong growth of prime borrower segment.  The prime borrower population, our target market, is expected to account for 49% of financially active population in 2022, making it the largest borrower segment of the online consumer finance market. The outstanding balance of prime borrowers will grow from RMB3.4 trillion (US$0.5 trillion) in 2017 to RMB10.9 trillion in 2022, at a CAGR of 26% according to Oliver Wyman.

    Online platforms gaining share.  Online consumer lending, today representing 13% of total consumer lending, is projected to grow by 27% annually from 2017 through 2022, according to Oliver Wyman. Over this period, the market share of online lenders is projected to grow to 15%, driven largely by superior borrower experiences. We expect online lenders to continue to take share from traditional lenders at this same pace, or greater, as technology becomes an even greater differentiator over time.

    Strong market positioning of platforms backed by technology and internet leaders.  Online consumer finance platforms associated or affiliated with technology and internet leaders are well positioned for outsized growth versus incumbents, largely on the basis of technology- and data-driven advantages across all functions of consumer finance.

    Multi-player market.  Across developed markets, regulatory bodies have molded regulatory frameworks to promote competition and stability within financial services, and prevent any single provider, or group of providers, from commanding a market share that could be destabilizing to the market in times of stress. We believe the same oversight philosophy will be applied in China as evidenced by recent regulatory actions, including tighter regulations, more stringent risk controls and closer monitoring of large financial service providers. We believe this will contribute to a sustained multi-player market in the future.

Our Partnership with 360 Group

        We work closely with 360 Group, collaborating across a number of functions in a mutually beneficial strategic and economic partnership. 360 Group's experience and brand across digital engagement and security in particular have helped to fundamentally shape our platform, including the following:

    Consumer brand and experience.  As the finance partner of 360 Group, we embed 360 Group's core values within our own platform, assuring borrowers of a holistic offering and experience consistent with the quality, user service and security that define 360 Group. We believe this is particularly differentiating in an increasingly crowded market where distinctions between offerings are less and less apparent.

    Funding.  Our collaboration with 360 Group leads to what we view as a sustainable funding advantage, including both cost and access, as compared to other online consumer finance platforms. Our funding partners are drawn to our platform for borrower access and risk adjusted returns. We believe they are also drawn by the solidity of our outlook which is reinforced by 360 Group's ongoing support. This translates into a greater lifetime value proposition for our

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      funding partners, encouraging growing funding commitments and drawing additional funding partners to our platform.

    Borrower acquisition.  Our products are integrated within 360 Group's platform, providing us access to their one billion accumulated mobile device base. As of September 30, 2018, 22.7% of our accumulated borrowers were sourced through 360 Group's channel.

        We entered into a master business collaboration agreement with 360 Group. Subject to compliance with applicable laws and non-infringement of the legitimate rights of any third party, we and 360 Group agree to continue to collaborate with each other in areas including but not limited to advanced analytical methods driven by artificial intelligence and data security best practices. With regard to data in particular, we will continue to develop algorithms capable of generating risk metrics from 360 Group's user data for the purpose of borrower assessment and risk management, with the borrower's expressed consent.

Our Strengths

        We are a technology company, a function of our 360 Group heritage and the team and infrastructure we have built. Technological expertise is fundamental to each dimension of our differentiation, which is highlighted as follows:

Partnership with 360 Group

        We are the finance partner of 360 Group. This provides a unique opportunity to collaborate across core platform functions, including data and analytics, artificial intelligence, cloud computing and risk management. It also provides us a marketing opportunity with regards to 360 Group's user base, including over 500 million monthly active users connected through one billion accumulated mobile devices. Collectively, we believe our partnership with 360 Group helps drive a growth, risk management and funding advantage.

Differentiated borrower acquisition

        We believe we have a meaningful borrower acquisition advantage over both online consumer finance platforms and traditional financial institutions. This advantage is a function of both high quality traffic, in part through collaboration with 360 Group, as well as a data-driven technology infrastructure allowing us to precisely target borrowers and quickly and confidently arrive at an automated credit decision. This benefit has led to a 53.1% conversion rate since inception and through September 30, 2018.

Intuitive product and user experience

        We have built a product, 360 Jietiao, to seamlessly match prime borrowers with funding partners. We offer a single product with transparent features and a simple interface to provide a straightforward and inviting user experience for borrowers and funding partners alike. We have taken this approach strategically, believing a single-product offering allows us to be uniquely focused on product development, earning the trust of our borrowers and funding partners alike. This serves as a critical step in establishing a platform for broader offerings and points of monetization, and materially differentiates us from the traditional financial institution experience which remains cumbersome and disjointed.

Market leading risk management and fraud prevention

        The confidence and speed with which we can deliver a credit decision is determined by our risk management, particularly our fraud prevention infrastructure. The foundation of this infrastructure is a

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massive user data set accumulated in collaboration with 360 Group and incorporating social, behavioral and financial elements. Upon this foundation we apply various artificial intelligence tools while also drawing upon years of internet security expertise and experience from 360 Group, delivering an M3+ delinquency rate of 0.6% and a 0.2% loss rate due to fraudulent application as of September 30, 2018.

Distinct funding advantage

        We have the benefit of a large, diverse and relatively low cost funding base across funding partners compared to other online consumer finance companies, according to Oliver Wyman. We offer our funding partners a distinct value proposition including access to an otherwise difficult-to-reach borrower base, above market realized returns of typically over 6.5% and an opportunity to cross-sell borrowers, enhancing the lifetime value of the borrower. This dynamic, in turn, draws steady funding supply to our platform in the form of both new funding partners and stronger funding support, which is important in controlling our cost of funds.

Rapid growth with long term operating leverage

        We had 9.6 million users with an approved credit line over the 27 months since our inception, representing a compound quarterly growth rate of 90.5% from the fourth quarter of 2016 to the third quarter of 2018. This growth coupled with the operating leverage within our business model has allowed us to rapidly achieve profitability. We are able to scale our business so efficiently by maintaining low borrower acquisition costs and delinquency rates, a function of a deliberate growth strategy where we remain committed to sustainable unit economics. This disciplined approach to building our business will permit us to organically fund our growth strategy and expand our operating margins as we grow our borrower base.

Uniquely diverse management team

        The collective experience of our management team is unprecedented in our industry. Our chairman of the board, Mr. Zhou, played critical roles in developing 360 Group's market leading internet security product and growing its one billion accumulated mobile device base as of the end of 2017. Our chief executive officer, Mr. Xu, has 17 years experience in the banking and financial services industries. Our president, Mr. Wu, has over ten years of experience overseeing internet product management and operations. Around this foundation, we have assembled a management team with a diversity of skills and experiences across technology, financial services, risk management, regulation and data science.

Our Growth Strategies

        We have significant opportunities to expand our business. Our growth strategy focuses on the following efforts to continue to deliver value for our constituents and shift our use case from a supplement to a replacement for credit card debt:

Deepen our relationship with existing borrowers

        We intend to enhance our relationships with existing borrowers who represent meaningful loan origination volume. Loan origination contributed by repeat borrowers represented 58.8% of our total loan origination volume for the third quarter of 2018. Our strategy is rooted in data, where increasingly detailed borrower profiles, including on-going repayment activity, are subject to ever more advanced analytical methods to improve our understanding of our borrowers' needs. When coupled with an evolving suite of loan products, we believe our platform will enable us to deepen our relationship with existing borrowers. As such, our goal is to encourage repeat borrowings where appropriate and set the

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stage for expanded borrower relationships as our product portfolio broadens outside of lending over time.

Broaden and diversify borrower acquisition channels

        While we expect in the near term to continue collaborating with 360 Group, who has contributed to 22.7% of our accumulated borrowers as of September 30, 2018, we are at the same time expanding our referral partnership network. We have meaningful existing relationships with market leading referral partners through app stores, web feeds, search engine marketing and other third-party marketing channels. We are also experimenting with new referral partners through other channels where we have seen encouraging early results. Lastly, 8.4% of our new borrowers come from our borrower referral program cumulatively as of September 30, 2018.

Expand funding partners and diversity

        We will expand our sources of funding, as we continue to receive significant interest from funding partners on the strength of the risk adjusted returns we facilitate and our association with 360 Group. We intend to diversify our institutional funding partner base, aiming to add two to three partners per quarter in the near term. We will continue to surround these partners with increasingly sophisticated technology tools, reinforcing our enablement model. At the same time, we will continue to evaluate our retail funding strategy based on market condition. In addition, we are experimenting with other funding sources, including but not limited to asset-based securities and off-shore funding upon our offering. We expect these initiatives will improve our funding stability and the stickiness of capital.

Expand product offerings

        Our singular focus on 360 Jietiao has provided the expertise and trust to effectively broaden our product suite and introduce more scenario-based products. For our current product suite, we believe we can leverage our established infrastructure to provide borrowers using our platform with more tailored loan products, such as larger loans with longer tenors, more diversified payment schemes and customized pricing where a borrower can transparently control the interest rate by adjusting certain loan features. In addition, we will also launch more scenario-based products to capture various consumption needs of a larger borrower base. We believe this will attract a greater number of borrowers while also allowing our offering set to evolve alongside the consumer finance needs of our existing borrower base.

Continue to develop and deploy artificial intelligence and risk management

        We continue to invest in artificial intelligence and view more extensive deployment as a means to grow our addressable market. We will continue to develop and apply artificial intelligence across all business functions, to achieve more efficient and precise borrower acquisition, more optimal risk management, and higher operational efficiency. For instance, the percentage of applicants for whom we are unable to approve due to lack of data has fallen as we have developed and applied artificial intelligence and other advanced analytical methods to our underwriting process. We expect continued investment will expand our approved application pool even further, while also helping to manage operating costs as we further implement automated borrower and collection services.

Opportunity to grow capital light origination model

        We intend to develop a technology services offering for our funding partners under a capital and guarantee light model under which we assume no guarantee liability. We recently launched such an offering whereby we provide technology support and expertise to funding partners for a fixed or floating fee based on loan origination volumes, without retaining credit risk exposure associated with

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the loans. This model will allow us to diversify our revenue streams and reduce the capital intensity of our growth strategy over time. The proportion of new loan origination under such capital and guarantee light model has been increasing. In the third quarter of 2018, approximately 11.0% of loan originations were capital and guarantee light. We intend to further explore such capital light model in the future.

Our Challenges

        Our ability to achieve our mission and execute our strategies is subject to risks and uncertainties, including those relating to our ability to:

    maintain our strategic collaborative and mutually beneficial relationship with 360 Group;

    continuingly improve and upgrade our risk management model to accurately price our loan products and effectively manage delinquency performance;

    acquire and retain borrowers in an effective and efficient way;

    increase the volume of loans facilitated through our platform;

    achieve and maintain compliance with the applicable regulations and rules relating to online consumer finance industry, particularly with respect to our guarantee practice, and provision of value-added telecommunications services, the failure of which may lead to fines, confiscation of our income, revocation of our business licenses or even discontinuation of our relevant businesses;

    maintain and continuously develop relationships with our funding partners;

    compete effectively; and

    promote and maintain our brand and reputation.

        In addition, we face risks and uncertainties related to our corporate structure and regulatory environment in China, including:

    uncertainties associated with the interpretation and application of PRC laws, regulations, rules and governmental policies, including those relating to the online consumer finance industry in China;

    risks associated with our control over our VIEs, which is based on contractual arrangements rather than equity ownership;

    uncertainties associated with the enactment timetable, interpretation and implementation of the draft PRC Foreign Investment Law, including how it may impact the viability of our corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations; and

    risks related to our ability to use the proceeds of this offering to make additional capital contributions or loans to our PRC subsidiary as a result of PRC regulations and governmental control of currency conversion.

        Please see "Risk Factors" and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of these and other risks and uncertainties that we face.

Our Products

        Our core product is an affordable, digital revolving line of credit allowing multiple loan drawdowns, with a convenient application process and flexible loan tenors.

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        Our products target the large and growing Chinese population of young prime borrowers between 18 to 35 years old. Prime borrowers are often consumers with credit cards and PBOC records who are considered to carry low-risk profiles. They might lack access to sufficient credit lines, however, due to their unproven credit history because of their young age, the early stage of their professional career and a short record of stable income. The annual disposable income range of prime borrowers is between RMB25,000 to RMB50,000 and their average delinquency rate is around 2%. However, prime borrowers typically have credit cards with low credit limits as compared to developed market peers. According to Oliver Wyman, around 30% of credit card holders in China have a credit limit below RMB10,000 (US$1,456.0).

        As of September 30, 2018, we had approved credit lines for 9.6 million users, 6.4 million borrowers had successfully utilized their credit lines and made drawdowns, and outstanding loan balance was RMB34.7 billion (US$5.1 billion). For the first nine months of 2018, the average amount of an approved credit line was RMB9,418 (US$1,371.3), the average single drawdown amount was RMB4,036 (US$587.7), and the average tenor of loans originated in this period was 8.6 months.

Our Business Model

        We match leads to selected funding partners to help them reach prime borrowers in need of affordable and prompt credit solutions. Borrowers on our platform pay interests to our funding partners directly in most cases, and we in turn charge service fees from our funding partners for the technical service rendered, which we recognize as loan facilitation and post-origination service revenues. We also provide loans through the consolidated trusts and Fuzhou Microcredit and charge fees and interests from borrowers, which we define as financing income. Meanwhile, we started in 2017 to earn referral service income from referral partners by referring some applicants on our platform who do not fit our funding partners' risk appetite. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018, our loan facilitation and post-origination service revenue, financing income, and referral service income were RMB940.9 million (US$137.0 million), RMB232.0 million (US$33.8 million) and RMB141.9 million (US$20.7 million), respectively.

        The practice of online consumer finance industry has been continuously evolving, particularly as a result of regulation changes. Keeping in line with the market practice and in response to new legal requirements, we have also adjusted our collaboration with our institutional funding partners, for example:

    Guarantee practice.  Historically we had guaranteed most borrowers' repayment obligation to our funding partners directly. In light of the regulation change that forbids banking financial institutions from taking any guarantee service from anyone but licensed guarantee companies, we have been switching to new models under which (i) third-party guarantee companies or our own licensed guarantee company provide guarantee service to our funding partners, and we at the same time, provide back-to-back guarantee for external guarantee companies where necessary, or (ii) no guarantee is rendered to funding partners. We provided some form of guarantee to our institutional funding partners without relevant guarantee license for 22.0% of all loans originated through our platform in the third quarter of 2018.

    Payment.  We had historically collected repayments from all borrowers directly, and transferred only the principal and a portion of interests to funding partners. As the new regulation provides that online consumer finance platforms that work to connect borrowers and financial institutions are not allowed to collect interest payment from borrowers, we have adopted a new payment flow model under which repayment by borrowers is made directly to our funding partners, who will then pay us our service fee. In certain cases, some funding partners further engage us and a third-party payment system service provider to together arrange payment clearance, pursuant to which borrowers first repay to a third-party payment system and we work together with the

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      payment system service provider to split the total repayment amount to the portions that funding partners and us are each entitled to. We do not charge any fees from borrowers under the new payment flow model, and as of September 30, 2018 our collaboration with only three funding partners were not under the new payment flow model, which funded 8.6% of all our loan originations in September 2018.

        We believe our new collaboration arrangements that we are adjusting to comply with the latest regulation in the industry, but we cannot assure you that governmental authorities will not interpret and apply the rules differently or more stringently. Furthermore, we may be subject to the penalties on our historical non-compliance. To the extent that any aspect of our products or services is found to be non-compliant with any requirements of the relevant PRC laws and regulations, we may need to further adjust our current practices within a short period of time, which may negatively affect our business. And the regulatory authorities may enforce penalties including business suspensions, compulsory enforcements, cancellation of qualifications or supervise the rectifications, confiscation of illegal income, fines of up to RMB1 million on aggregated basis, and, if the circumstances are extremely serious, revocation of business licenses or criminal liabilities.

        In addition, delivering services through the internet in general is subject to a complicated regulatory regime in China and requires various licenses and permits from governmental authorities. Currently, we have not obtained the value-added telecommunication service license, or the VATS License, as the interpretation of such regulations and PRC regulatory authorities' enforcement of such regulations in the context of online consumer finance industry remains uncertain and it is unclear whether online consumer finance service providers like us are required to obtain any other kind of VATS licenses. We have not been subject to any penalties for the lack of such license. We will make best efforts to obtain such license when the interpretation and enforcement of the relevant regulations and the application process becomes clear, failure of which may lead to fines up to five times of the illegal income or RMB1 million, confiscation of income, or suspensions of business.

Corporate History and Structure

        We started our operation in July 2016, when Beijing Qibutianxia incorporated Shanghai Qiyu. In March 2017, Fuzhou Microcredit was founded and later obtained the license to conduct online microcredit lending business. In June 2018, Fuzhou 360 Financing Guarantee Co., Ltd., or Fuzhou Financing Guarantee, was founded and obtained the license to provide financing guarantee services.

        In April 2018, 360 Finance, Inc. was incorporated in the Cayman Islands as an offshore holding company to facilitate our financing and offshore listing. In May 2018, all shareholders of Beijing Qibutianxia adopted a unanimous resolution to reorganize for offshore listing and determine to spin off the online consumer finance service, microcredit lending as well as related financing guarantee businesses, which were hosted by Shanghai Qiyu, Fuzhou Microcredit and Fuzhou Financing Guarantee.

        During the reorganization process we issued ordinary shares and preferred shares to the beneficial owners of Beijing Qibutianxia in exchange for the contribution of Shanghai Qiyu, Fuzhou Microcredit and Fuzhou Financing Guarantee. We in addition have incorporated a wholly-owned subsidiary, HK Qirui International Technology Company Limited, in Hong Kong. It has further incorporated a wholly-owned subsidiary in China, Shanghai Qiyue Information Technology Co., Ltd., which is referred to as our WFOE in this prospectus. Our WFOE has entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Shanghai Qiyu, Fuzhou Microcredit, and Fuzhou Financing Guarantee, which three entities we collectively refer to as our VIEs in this prospectus, and their respective record shareholders. These contractual arrangements enable us to exercise effective control over our VIEs; receive substantially all of the economic benefits of our VIEs; and have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in and assets of them when and to the extent permitted by PRC law. For risks and

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uncertainties associated with this structure, please see "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure."

        As a result of our direct ownership in our WFOE and the contractual arrangements with our VIEs, we will be regarded as the primary beneficiary of our VIEs, and may treat them as our consolidated affiliated entities under U.S. GAAP. Accordingly, we will be able to consolidate the financial results of our VIEs in our combined and consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

        Immediately prior to the completion of this offering, our ordinary shares will consist of class A ordinary shares and class B ordinary shares. Based on our post-offering dual-class share structure, holders of class A ordinary shares will be entitled to one vote per share in respect of matters requiring the votes of shareholders, while holders of class B ordinary shares will be entitled to twenty votes per share. The sole holder of our class B ordinary shares immediately after the completion of this offering, Mr. Zhou Hongyi, will beneficially own        % of the aggregate voting power of our company immediately after the completion of this offering and have considerable influence over matters such as electing directors and approving mergers, acquisitions or other business combination transactions. Furthermore, given our post-offering dual-class shares structure, Mr. Zhou will have the ability to control the outcome of all corporate governance matters so long as he holds at least 4.8% of our total issued and outstanding share capital in class B ordinary shares.

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        The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure, including our subsidiaries and our VIEs:

GRAPHIC


(1)
Each of Shanghai Qiyu and Fuzhou Microcredit is wholly owned by Beijing Qibutianxia, whose shareholders are beneficial owners of the shares of our company. Fuzhou Financing Guarantee is wholly owned by Beijing Zhongxin Baoxin Technology Co., Ltd., which is in turn wholly owned by Beijing Qibutianxia.

        The chart below sets forth the beneficial ownership structure of 360 Finance, Inc. immediately after this offering, with voting power percentages shown in brackets next to each beneficial ownership percentages, assuming that the underwriters will not exercise their over-allotment option:

GRAPHIC


*
"Principal shareholders—Note (1)" for further information regarding the beneficial ownership and voting power.

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Implication of Being an Emerging Growth Company, a Foreign Private Issuer and a Controlled Company

        As a company with less than US$1.07 billion in revenue for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an "emerging growth company" pursuant to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements compared to those that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in the assessment of the emerging growth company's internal control over financial reporting. The JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company does not need to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards until such date that a private company is otherwise required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards. We do not plan to "opt out" of such exemptions afforded to an emerging growth company.

        We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (a) the last day of the fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenues of at least US$1.07 billion; (b) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering; (c) the date on which we have, during the preceding three-year period, issued more than US$1.0 billion in non-convertible debt; or (d) the date on which we are deemed to be a "large accelerated filer" under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of our ADSs that are held by non-affiliates exceeds US$700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Once we cease to be an emerging growth company, we will not be entitled to the exemptions provided in the JOBS Act discussed above.

        We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. Moreover, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. In addition, as an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from the New York Stock Exchange corporate governance listing standards. These practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with the New York Stock Exchange corporate governance listing standards.

        Upon the completion of this offering, our issued and outstanding share capital will consist of class A ordinary shares and class B ordinary shares, and we will be a "controlled company" as defined under the New York Stock Exchange Rules because Mr. Hongyi Zhou, the chairman of our board of directors, will beneficially own all of our then issued and outstanding class B ordinary shares and will be able to exercise        % of our total voting power assuming the underwriters do not exercise their over-allotment option, or        % of our total voting power if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full. Under the New York Stock Exchange Rules, a "controlled company" may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements. Currently, we do not plan to utilize the "controlled company" exemptions with respect to our corporate governance practice after we complete this offering.

Corporate Information

        Our principal executive offices are located at China Diamond Exchange Center, Building B, No. 555 Pudian Road, No. 1701 Century Avenue, Pudong New Area, Shanghai 200122, People's Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +86 21 6151-6360. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands.

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        Investors should submit any inquiries to the address and telephone number of our principal executive offices. Our main website is www.360jie.com.cn. The information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc., located at 10 E. 40 Street, 10th Floor, New York, NY 10016.

Conventions that Apply to this Prospectus

        Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to:

    "360 Finance," "we," "us," "our company" and "our" are to 360 Finance, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries and affiliated entities;

    "ADSs" are to our American depositary shares, each of which represents            class A ordinary shares;

    "Beijing Qibutianxia" are to Beijing Qibutianxia Technology Co., Ltd.;

    "Beijing Zixuan" are to Beijing Zixuan Information Technology Co., Ltd.;

    "China" or the "PRC" are to the People's Republic of China, excluding, for the purposes of this prospectus only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;

    "class A ordinary shares" are to our class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share;

    "class B ordinary shares" are to our class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share;

    "class C ordinary shares" are to our class C ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share, which are currently outstanding and will be automatically converted to class A ordinary shares immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

    "inception" are to the date of our inception, July 25, 2016;

    "Fuzhou Financing Guarantee" are to Fuzhou 360 Financing Guarantee Co., Ltd.;

    "Fuzhou Microcredit" are to Fuzhou 360 Online Microcredit Co., Ltd.;

    "ordinary shares" or "Ordinary Shares" are to our class A ordinary shares, class B ordinary shares and class C ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share;

    "our VIEs" are to Shanghai Qiyu, Fuzhou Microcredit and Fuzhou Financing Guarantee;

    "our WFOE" are to Shanghai Qiyue Information Technology Co., Ltd.;

    "360 Group" are to 360 Security Technology Inc. and its controlled affiliates;

    "RMB" and "Renminbi" are to the legal currency of China;

    "Shanghai Qiyu" are to Shanghai Qiyu Information Technology Co., Ltd.; and

    "US$," "U.S. dollars," "$," and "dollars" are to the legal currency of the United States.

        Unless the context indicates otherwise, all information in this prospectus assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their over-allotment option.

        In addition, unless the context indicates otherwise, for the discussion of our business reference in this prospectus to:

    "first year utilization rate" of a borrower are to the percentage of total drawdown amount of a borrower within the first twelve months after her credit line was approved to her initial credit line. Our historical first year utilization rate refers to first year utilization rate of all borrowers that have been approved a credit line for more than twelve months, weighted by their initial credit lines.

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    "conversion rate" are to the number of users that have completed credit line application to the total number of users that registered on our platform after being directed to our platform from a given marketing channel or channels in the given period.

    "cumulative borrowers" are to the cumulative number of borrowers who had submitted their drawdown request and successfully made drawdowns since our inception.

    "delinquency rate by vintage" are to (i) the total amount of principal for all loans in a vintage that become delinquent, less (ii) the total amount of recovered past due principal for all loans in the same vintage, and divided by (iii) the total initial principal amount of loans in such vintage.

    "M3+ delinquency rate" are to the rate of loans delinquent for more than 90 days, excluding loans delinquent for more than 180 days unless the content specifically provides otherwise.

    "M1-M0 collection rate" are to a percentage, which is equal to the product obtained by using one minus a fraction, the numerator of which is the ending outstanding loan balance of M2 loans of the given month and the denominator of which is the beginning outstanding loan balance of M1 loans of such month. M0, M1 and M2 loans here are defined as loans that are not delinquent, delinquent for one period and delinquent for two periods, respectively. The annual M1-M0 collection rate is the weighted average monthly M1-M0 collection rate for the given year weighted by beginning outstanding loan balance of M1 loans of each month of such given year.

    "loan origination volume" are to the total principal amount of loans originated through our platform during the given period.

    "loss rate due to fraudulent application" are to the percentage of total origination volume of new borrowers who defaulted on their first repayments for over 30 days divided by total loan origination volume on our platform up to a specific date.

    "outstanding loan balance" are to the total amount of principal outstanding for loans originated through our platform at the end of each period.

    "repeat borrower contribution" or "loan origination contributed by repeat borrowers" for a given period are to (i) the principal amount of loans borrowed during that period by borrowers who had historically made at least one successful drawdown, divided by (ii) the total loan origination volume through our platform during that period.

    "users with approved credit lines" are to the total number of users who had submitted their credit applications and were approved with a credit line by us at the end of each period.

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The Offering

Offering price

 

We currently estimate that the initial public offering price will be between US$        and US$        per ADS.

ADSs offered by us

 

        ADSs (or         ADSs if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full).

ADSs outstanding immediately after this offering

 

        ADSs (or            ADSs if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full)

 

Among all of our shareholders immediately after this offering, investors participating in this offering will hold        % of our ownership interests with        % voting interests.

Ordinary shares issued and outstanding immediately after this offering

 

        ordinary shares, comprised of        class A ordinary shares and 39,820,586 class B ordinary shares(or         ordinary shares if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, comprised of        class A ordinary shares and 39,820,586 class B ordinary shares).

The ADSs

 

Each ADS represents        class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00001 per share.

 

The depositary will hold class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. You will have rights as provided in the deposit agreement among us, the depositary and holders and beneficial owners of ADSs from time to time.

 

We have not yet adopted a dividend policy with respect to future dividends. If, however, we declare dividends on our class A ordinary shares, the depositary will pay you the cash dividends and other distributions it receives on our class A ordinary shares after deducting its fees and expenses in accordance with the terms set forth in the deposit agreement.

 

You may surrender your ADSs to the depositary in exchange for class A ordinary shares. The depositary will charge you fees for any exchange.

 

We and the depositary may amend the deposit agreement without your consent. If you continue to hold your ADSs after an amendment to the deposit agreement, you agree to be bound by the deposit agreement as amended.

 

To better understand the terms of the ADSs, you should carefully read the "Description of American Depositary Shares" section of this prospectus. You should also read the deposit agreement, which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement that includes this prospectus.

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Over-allotment option

 

We have granted to the underwriters an option, exercisable within 30 days from the date of this prospectus, to purchase up to an aggregate of        additional ADSs at the initial public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions.

Use of proceeds

 

We expect that we will receive net proceeds of approximately US$         million from this offering, assuming an initial public offering price of US$        per ADS, which is the midpoint of the estimated range of the initial public offering price, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purpose. See "Use of Proceeds" for more information.

Lock-up

 

[We, our directors, executive officers, and all of our existing shareholders] have agreed with the underwriters not to sell, transfer or dispose of any ADSs, ordinary shares or similar securities for a period of 180 days after the date of this prospectus. subject to certain exceptions. In addition, we will not authorize or permit The Bank of New York Mellon, as depositary, to accept any deposit of any ordinary shares or issue any ADSs for 180 days after the date of this prospectus unless we expressly consent to such deposit or issuance and we have agreed not to provide such consent without the prior written consent of the representatives on behalf of the underwriters. See "Shares Eligible for Future Sale" and "Underwriting."

Directed ADS Program

 

At our request, the underwriters have reserved for sale, at the initial public offering price, up to an aggregate of        ADSs offered in this offering to some of our directors, officers, employees, business associates and related persons through a directed ADS program. We do not know if these individuals will choose to purchase all or any portion of these reserved ADSs, but any purchases they do make will reduce the number of ADSs that are available to the general public. Any reserved ADSs that are not so purchased will be offered by the underwriters to the general public on the same terms as the other ADSs offered by this prospectus. Certain participants may be subject to the lock-up agreements as described in "Underwriting—Directed ADS Program" elsewhere in this prospectus.

Listing

 

We have applied to have the ADSs listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "QFIN" Our ADSs and shares will not be listed on any other stock exchange or traded on any automated quotation system.

Payment and settlement

 

The underwriters expect to deliver the ADSs against payment therefor through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company on        , 2018.

Depositary

 

The Bank of New York Mellon.

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Summary Combined and Consolidated Financial and Operating Data

        The following summary combined and consolidated statements of operations data for the period from July 25, 2016, or the inception date, to December 31, 2016 and the year ended December 31, 2017, summary combined and consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2016 and 2017 and summary combined and consolidated cash flow data for the period from the inception date to December 31, 2016 and the year ended December 31, 2017 have been derived from our audited combined and consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary combined and consolidated statements of operations data for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2018, the summary combined and consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2018 and summary combined and consolidated cash flow data for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2018 are derived from our unaudited condensed combined and consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have prepared the unaudited condensed combined and consolidated financial statements on the same basis as our audited combined and consolidated financial statements. Our combined and consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results expected for future periods. You should read this Summary Combined and Consolidated Financial and Operating Data section together with our combined and consolidated financial statements and the related notes

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and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 
  Period from the
inception date to
December 31,
  For the year ended
December 31,
  For the nine months ended
September 30,
 
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Summary Combined and Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

                                     

Net revenue

                                     

Revenue from loan facilitation services

    42     117,780     17,149     41,447     658,655     95,902  

Revenue from post-origination services

    18     50,478     7,350     17,763     282,281     41,101  

Financing income

        50,966     7,421     12,196     232,047     33,787  

Other service fee revenues            

        89,828     13,079     2,963     212,582     30,953  

Total net revenue

    60     309,052     44,999     74,369     1,385,565     201,743  

Operating costs and expenses(1):

                                     

Origination and servicing

    13,178     136,106     19,817     76,799     503,488     73,309  

Sales and marketing

    1,605     345,576     50,317     196,532     844,667     122,986  

General and administrative

    15,410     46,004     6,698     35,379     460,080     66,989  

Provision for loans receivable

        12,406     1,806     3,133     35,693     5,197  

Provision for financial assets receivable

                        593     86  

Total operating costs and expenses

    30,193     540,092     78,638     311,843     1,844,521     268,567  

Loss from operations

    (30,133 )   (231,040 )   (33,639 )   (237,474 )   (458,956 )   (66,824 )

Interest income

    3     2,421     353     1,375     6,469     942  

Foreign exchange losses

                    (3,145 )   (458 )

Other income (loss), net

        22     3     22     7,696     1,121  

Loss before provision for income taxes

    (30,130 )   (228,597 )   (33,283 )   (236,077 )   (447,936 )   (65,219 )

Income taxes benefit (expense)

    8,297     62,232     9,061     64,268     (21,400 )   (3,116 )

Net loss

    (21,833 )   (166,365 )   (24,222 )   (171,809 )   (469,336 )   (68,335 )

Deemed dividend

                    (3,097,733 )   (451,038 )

Net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders of the Company

    (21,833 )   (166,365 )   (24,222 )   (171,809 )   (3,567,069 )   (519,373 )

Net loss per ordinary share attributable to ordinary shareholders of 360 Finance, Inc

                                     

Basic

    (0.11 )   (0.84 )   (0.12 )   (0.87 )   (17.98 )   (2.62 )

Diluted

    (0.11 )   (0.84 )   (0.12 )   (0.87 )   (17.98 )   (2.62 )

Weighted average shares used in calculating net loss per ordinary share

                                     

Basic

    198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168  

Diluted

    198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168  

(1)
Share-based compensation expenses were allocated as follows:
 
   
  For the year
ended
December 31,
  For the nine
months ended
September 30,
 
 
  Period from the
inception date to
December 31,
2016
 
 
  2017   2017   2018  
 
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Origination and servicing expenses

                    144,847     21,090  

Sales and marketing expenses

                    10,679     1,555  

General and administrative expenses

                    374,498     54,528  

Total

                    530,024     77,173  

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        The following table presents our summary combined and consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016 and 2017 and September 30, 2018:

 
  As of December 31,   As of September 30,  
 
  2016   2017   2018  
 
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
  RMB
  US$
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Summary Combined and Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:

                               

Current assets:

                               

Cash and cash equivalents

    6,173     468,547     68,222     2,008,718     292,475  

Restricted cash

        487,882     71,037     539,820     78,599  

Financial assets receivable, net (net of allowance of RMB nil as of December 31, 2016 and 2017, and RMB593 as of September 30, 2018, respectively)

    5,399     140,356     20,436     451,010     65,668  

Security deposit prepaid to third-party guarantee companies

                435,700     63,439  

Loans receivable, net

        1,192,307     173,603     709,333     103,281  

Total current assets

    79,032     2,560,697     372,845     4,393,776     639,747  

Total non-current assets

    10,487     192,575     28,040     628,071     91,449  

Total assets

    89,519     2,753,272     400,885     5,021,847     731,196  

Current liabilities:

                               

Payable to investors of the consolidated trusts

        536,906     78,175          

Guarantee liabilities

    5,768     300,942     43,818     1,010,456     147,125  

Total current liabilities:

    111,352     2,351,470     342,381     2,951,804     429,791  

Total mezzanine equity

                4,491,545     653,982  

Total shareholder's (deficit) equity

    (21,833 )   401,802     58,504     (2,421,502 )   (352,577 )

Total liabilities, mezzanine equity and equity

    89,519     2,753,272     400,885     5,021,847     731,196  

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        The following table presents our summary combined and consolidated cash flow data for the period from the inception date to December 31, 2016, the year ended December 31, 2017 and the nine months ended September 30, 2018:

 
  Period from the
inception date to
December 31,
  For the year ended
December 31,
  For the nine months ended
September 30,
 
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Summary Combined and Consolidated Cash Flow Data:

                                     

Net cash (used in)/provided by operating activities

    (68,486 )   (110,974 )   (16,159 )   264,565     415,118     60,442  

Net cash (used in)/provided by investing activities

    (2,391 )   (1,204,269 )   (175,345 )   (533,246 )   476,321     69,353  

Net cash provided by financing activities

    77,050     2,265,499     329,864     878,000     712,523     103,746  

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

    6,173     950,256     138,360     609,319     1,592,109     231,815  

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at the beginning of year/period

        6,173     899     6,173     956,429     139,259  

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at the end of year/period

    6,173     956,429     139,259     615,492     2,548,538     371,074  

        The following table presents certain of our operating data for the periods or as of the dates indicated:

 
  For the three months ended/As of    
 
 
  December 31,
2016
  March 31,
2017
  June 30,
2017
  September 31,
2017
  December 31,
2017
  March 31,
2018
  June 30,
2018
  September 30,
2018
  Compound
quarterly
growth rate
 

Loan

                                                       

Loan origination volume (RMB million)              

    433     2,706     5,123     10,399     12,764     14,773     21,277     26,925     80.4 %

Outstanding loan balance (RMB million)               

    321     1,798     3,932     8,160     12,202     17,413     26,452     34,661     95.2 %

Repeat borrower contribution

    25.5 %   40.8 %   52.2 %   52.1 %   58.9 %   54.3 %   51.8 %   58.8 %   N/A  

Users/Borrowers

   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
 

Users with approved credit lines ('000)

    106     527     1,132     2,258     3,299     4,653     7,164     9,644     90.5 %

Cumulative borrowers with successful drawdown, including repetitive borrowers ('000)                                   

    56     327     748     1,538     2,286     3,158     4,694     6,444     97.0 %

Non-GAAP Measures

        We use adjusted net loss, a non-GAAP financial measure, in evaluating our operating results and for financial and operational decision-making purposes. Adjusted net loss represents net loss excluding share-based compensation expenses, and such adjustment has no impact on income tax.

        We believe that adjusted net loss helps identify underlying trends in our business that could otherwise be distorted by the effect of certain expenses that we include in net loss. We believe that adjusted net loss provides useful information about our operating results, enhance the overall

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understanding of our past performance and future prospects and allow for greater visibility with respect to key metrics used by our management in its financial and operational decision-making.

        Adjusted net loss should not be considered in isolation or construed as an alternative to net loss or any other measure of performance or as an indicator of our operating performance. Investors are encouraged to review the historical non-GAAP financial measures to the most directly comparable GAAP measures. Adjusted net loss presented here may not be comparable to similarly titled measures presented by other companies. Other companies may calculate similarly titled measures differently, limiting their usefulness as comparative measures to our data. We encourage investors and others to review our financial information in its entirety and not rely on a single financial measure.

        The table below sets forth a reconciliation of our adjusted net loss to net loss for the periods indicated.

 
  Period from the
inception date to
December 31,
  For the year ended
December 31,
  For the nine months ended
September 30,
 
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Net loss

    (21,833 )   (166,365 )   (24,222 )   (171,809 )   (469,336 )   (68,335 )

Add:

                                     

Share-based compensation expenses (net of tax effect of nil)

                    530,024     77,173  

Adjusted net (loss) income

    (21,833 )   (166,365 )   (24,222 )   (171,809 )   60,688     8,838  

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RISK FACTORS

        An investment in our ADSs involves significant risks. You should consider carefully all of the information in this prospectus, including the risks and uncertainties described below, before making an investment in our ADSs. Any of the following risks could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and ability to pay dividends, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We have a limited operating history, which makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects.

        We launched our online consumer finance business in September 2016 and only have a limited operating history. Members of our management team have been working together only for a short period of time and are still in the running-in period. They may still be in the process of exploring approaches to running our company and reaching consensus among themselves, which may affect the efficiency and results of our operation.

        We have limited experience in most aspects of our business operation, such as credit product offerings, credit assessment and the development of long-term relationships with borrowers, institutional funding partners, and other business partners. In addition, we have limited experience in serving our current target borrower base. As our business develops or in response to competition, we may continue to introduce new products, make adjustments to our existing products, or make adjustments to our business operation in general. We will also seek to expand the base of prospective borrowers on our platform, which may result in higher delinquency rate of transactions originated by us. Any significant change to our business model not achieving expected results may have a material and adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations. It is therefore difficult to effectively assess our future prospects.

The online consumer finance industry is new and rapidly evolving, which makes it difficult to effectively assess our future prospects.

        The online consumer finance industry in the PRC is new and in developing stage. The regulatory framework for this market is also evolving and may remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. See "—The laws and regulations governing the online consumer finance industry and online microcredit companies in China are developing and evolving rapidly. If any of our business practices are deemed to violate any PRC laws or regulations, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected."

        Furthermore, the online consumer finance industry has not witnessed a full credit cycle. The market players in the industry, including us, are inexperienced in responding to the change of market situations effectively and keep the growth of business steadily when the industry enters a different stage. We may not be able to sustain our historical growth rate in the future.

        You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and challenges we encounter or may encounter given the rapidly-evolving market in which we operate and our limited operating history. These risks and challenges include our ability to, among other things:

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We rely on 360 Group as an essential source of user traffic and technology support. If the user traffic or other services provided by 360 Group become limited, restricted, curtailed, less effective or more expensive in any way, or become unavailable to us for any reason, or we cannot benefit from the brand recognition of 360 Group as we do, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

        We have established a strategic partnership with 360 Group, one of our affiliates, and we collaborate across multiple areas of our business. This strategic partnership has contributed to the significant growth of our revenue, particularly in early stage of our business, and we believe that it will continue to contribute to the growth of our revenue. We have entered into a framework collaboration agreement with 360 Group, setting out the terms of collaboration, especially as if relates to research and development, user traffic support, and trademark licensing. See "Related Party Transactions—Transactions with 360 Group." However, we cannot assure you that we will continue to receive the same level of support from 360 Group of the same or more favorable terms and conditions, or renew our collaboration agreements at all, upon expiration of the agreement terms. As 360 Group is a public company listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange of China, it is subject to relevant PRC regulations and exchange rules, which may impact its ability to collaborate with us pursuant to the terms we desire.

        We are the finance partner of 360 Group and we benefit from authorization by 360 Group to use its brand. We believe 360 Group's strong brand recognition and wide adoption in China assist certain of our core capabilities, such as borrower acquisition and cooperative relationship with our partners. However, we cannot assure you that 360 Group will continue to authorize us to use its brand. If we are not allowed to use 360 Group's brand or 360 Group's brand recognition deteriorates, the results of our business operation and financial condition may be materially and adversely impacted. Furthermore, as we are the finance partner of 360 Group, any malicious or negative allegations about 360 Group may adversely impact our business.

        Our research and development also benefit from the collaboration with 360 Group in developing our proprietary technologies. We cannot assure you that 360 Group will continue to work with us to develop our technologies. If 360 Group ceases to collaborate with us or if such collaboration becomes less effective, our competition edge on the technology may be materially and adversely impacted.

        Our collaboration with 360 Group also extends to brand building and marketing. From our inception and up to September 30, 2018, 360 Group contributed 22.7% of our cumulative borrowers. Additionally we collaborate with 360 Group to conduct targeted marketing through various other marketing channels, such as app stores and search engines. 360 Group's brand recognition helps us

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maintain a cooperative relationship with our marketing channel partners, and any deterioration to 360 Group's brand may adversely impact our marketing efforts. In addition, some of trademarks we use such as "360 Jietiao" are owned by 360 Group. The framework collaboration agreement entered by and between us and 360 Group contains a licensing clause which enables us to use the trademarks we need within the term of the framework collaboration agreement. However, we cannot assure you that 360 Group will continue to authorize us to use the trademarks, and if they do not, our business may be materially and adversely impacted.

The laws and regulations governing the online consumer finance industry and online microcredit companies in China are developing and evolving rapidly. If any of our business practices are deemed to violate any PRC laws or regulations, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.

        Due to the relatively short history of the online consumer finance industry in China, the PRC government has yet to establish a comprehensive regulatory framework governing our industry. Recent legislations that have significant impact on the industry include: the Guidelines on Promoting the Healthy Development of Internet Finance Industry, or the Fintech Guidelines, the Implementation Plan for the Special Rectification of Internet Financial Risk, the Notice on the Implementation of Check and Rectification of Cash Loan Business and a supplementary notice, or the Notices on Cash Loans, and the Notice on Regulating and Rectifying "Cash Loan" Business, or Circular 141, and the Online Lending Rectification Office issued the Implementation Plan of Specific Rectification for Risks in Microcredit Companies conducting Online Microcredit Business, or Circular 56, which further details the requirements on online microcredit companies.

        We focus on complying with relevant laws, regulations and government policies applicable to our business practice in the PRC, while we are still subject to noncompliance risk since the rules and regulations are general and yet to be further interpreted or supplemented.

        Circular 141 specifies that the business of "cash loan" which is characterized by the lack of specific consumption scenarios, designated purposes, targeted users and collateral may be subject to inspection and rectification. We do not believe any of the loans originated through our platform are prohibited under Circular 141, as they do not have all of the four characteristics of cash loans or engage in issuing of excessive borrowing, granting credits repeatedly of individual borrowers, collecting abnormally high interest rate and violating privacy as defined under Circular 141. However, in the absence of authoritative interpretation of the key requirements or characteristics of cash loan, especially whether the definition of cash loan requires all the four characteristics or just any of the four characteristics, we cannot assure you that our existing practices would not be deemed to violate any relevant laws, rules and regulations that are applicable to our business practices. We may be required to cease or modify any such "cash loans" to comply with Circular 141 and any other future laws and regulations, which may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.

        In addition, Circular 141 further stipulates that a banking financial institution that offers cash loans through loan facilitation is prohibited from (i) accepting credit enhancement or other similar services from third parties that lack requisite licenses to provide guarantees; (ii) outsourcing credit assessment, risk control and other key functions to a loan facilitation operator; and (iii) allowing the loan facilitation operator to charge any interest or fees from the borrower. If a financial institution violates the aforementioned rules and provisions, the regulatory authorities may enforce business suspensions, compulsory enforcements, cancellation of qualifications or supervise the rectifications. If the circumstances are extremely serious, such financial institution's business license may be cancelled. For a discussion of Circular 141, please see "Regulations—Regulation on Online Finance Services Industry—Regulations on the business of cash loans."

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        Before the promulgation of the Circular 141, we followed the market practice in drafting agreements used in our loan originations. In response to certain requirements under the Circular 141, we have made several adjustments to our collaboration model with certain institutional funding partners. However, we may still be deemed to violate the Circular 141 or other relevant rules in the following aspects of our business:

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        With respect to our practices described above, since Circular 141 has no retrospective effect on the loan facilitation business conducted prior to the issuance of Circular 141, as advised by our PRC legal counsel we believe that loans we originated prior to the issuance of Circular 141 or under our existing collaboration agreements executed prior to the issuance of Circular 141 are not subject to Circular 141. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that the government authorities would still consider our business practices described above to be in violation of Circular 141 and there can be no assurance that the PRC governmental authorities will ultimately take a view that is consistent with our PRC legal counsel. To the extent that any aspect of our products or services is deemed to be non-compliant with any requirements of the relevant PRC laws and regulations, we may need to further adjust our current practices within a limited time period and, as a result, our business operations may be negatively impacted.

        Any new changes to, or new interpretations of, the existing regulations on the online consumer finance industry may discourage our funding partners to fund the loans through our platform. If our funding partners cease to fund the loans, either on a temporary basis so as to better clarify the new regulatory environment, or on a permanent basis for non-compliance concerns, our operation will be adversely impacted. If fewer financial institutions are willing to fund the loans, the competition on the funding may become more intense, and the cost of funding may increase, which may adversely impact our results of operation.

        In addition, we may be required to make significant changes to our operations from time to time in order to comply with the changes in laws, regulations and policies, which may increase our cost of operation, limits our options of products offering or even change our business model fundamentally. For example, the current rules and regulations prohibit a bank from outsourcing credit assessment, risk control and other key functions to a loan facilitation service provider. At present, although the collaboration agreements between us and banks stipulate that we only provide assistance and support regarding risk assessment and early-stage filtering of drawdown applications to the banks and banks still make the final credit decision, we cannot ensure that the authorities will have the same view. Meanwhile, our risk management assistance to banks mainly depends on the evaluation of information regarding personal credit status, which may be deemed as the "data-driven risk management model," a model the regulations such as Circular 141 demands to be adopted with care and caution. If such assistance is prohibited, it may affect the subsequent collaboration between us and our institutional funding partners. If we are prohibited from conducting our credit assessment, our operation will be adversely affected.

        Furthermore, from time to time, we may need additional licenses to operate our business. Failure to obtain, renew, or retain requisite licenses, permits or approvals may adversely affect our ability to conduct or expand our business.

We are subject to credit cycle and the risk of deterioration of credit profiles of borrowers.

        Our business is subject to credit cycle associated with the volatility of the general economy. If economic conditions deteriorate, we may face an increased risk of default or delinquency of borrowers, which will result in lower returns or even losses. In the event that the creditworthiness of our borrowers

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deteriorates or we cannot track the deterioration of their creditworthiness, the criteria we use for the analysis of borrower credit profiles may be rendered inaccurate, and our risk management system may be subsequently rendered ineffective. This in turn may lead to higher default rates and adversely impact our result of operations.

        In addition, any deterioration in our borrowers' creditworthiness, or any increase in our delinquency rate will also discourage our funding partners from cooperating with us. If our funding partners choose to adopt a tight credit approval and drawdown funding policy during a specific period, our ability to secure funding during such period will be materially restricted, and our results of operation will be adversely impacted.

Fraudulent activity on our platform could negatively impact our operating results, brand and reputation and cause the use of our loan products and services to decrease.

        We are subject to the risk of fraudulent activity associated with borrowers and parties handling borrower or institutional funding partner information. Our resources, technologies and fraud detection tools may be insufficient to accurately detect and prevent fraud. Even if we identify a fraudulent borrower and reject her credit application, such borrower may re-apply by using fraudulent information. We may fail to identify such behavior, despite our measures to verify personal identification information provided by borrowers. Furthermore, we may not be able to recoup funds underlying transactions made in connection with fraudulent activities. A significant increase in fraudulent activities could negatively impact our brands and reputation, discourage funding partners from collaborating with us, reduce the number of transactions originated to borrowers and lead us to take additional steps to reduce fraud risk, which could increase our costs. High profile fraudulent activity could even lead to regulatory intervention and may divert our management's attention and cause us to incur additional expenses and costs. Although we have not experienced any material business or reputational harm as a result of fraudulent activities in the past, we cannot rule out the possibility that fraudulent activities may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations in the future.

We rely on our proprietary risk management model in assessing the creditworthiness of our borrowers and the risks associated with loans. If our model is flawed or ineffective, or if we otherwise fail or are perceived to fail to manage the default risks of loans originated through our platform, our reputation and market share would be materially and adversely affected, which would severely impact our business and results of operations.

        Our ability to attract borrowers to, and build trust in, our platform is significantly dependent on our ability to effectively evaluate borrowers' credit profiles and the likelihood of default. To conduct this evaluation, we utilize our Argus RM Model, which is built based on massive data collected through various channels and strengthened by our sophisticated artificial intelligence and advanced machine learning techniques. Upon the data aggregation, our system converts the originally unstructured data into structured data using machine learning techniques and applies them to our anti-fraud and credit assessment models. See "Business—Risk Management."

        Our Argus RM Model, though well-tuned through our manual structuring and machine learning, may still be flawed or ineffective to process the immense data and provide an accurate report. It may not adjust itself to the changes in the data patterns or the changes to the major economy background. It may be breached, manipulated or otherwise compromised.

        If any of the foregoing were to occur in the future, our funding partners may try to rescind their affected investments or decide not to invest in loans, or borrowers may seek to revise the terms of their loans or reduce the use of our platform for financing, and our reputation and market share would be materially and adversely affected, which would severely impact our business and results of operations.

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        Meanwhile, as our Argus RM Model becomes more and more familiar to the public and the fraudulent borrowers become better and better educated regarding the industry practice, it is possible that despite the iterative development of our anti-fraud and credit-scoring algorism, our model becomes outdated and ineffective to detect new fraud schemes or make accurate credit assessments. If that happens, our ability to control our delinquency rate will become substantially limited, which will adversely impact our operation and financial status.

We rely on our risk management team to establish and execute our risk management policies. If our risk management team or key members of such team were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, our business may be severely disrupted.

        We rely on our risk management team to continuously iterate and train our Argus RM Model, which is the center of the establishment and execution of our risk management policies. Although our Argus RM Model is equipped with machine learning capability and conducts self-learning and self-development all based on the data we have, we still rely on our risk management team to spot and fix potential errors and flaws in our Argus RM Model. Meanwhile, the consumer finance market changes fast and we may need to adjust our risk management principles from time to time to control our loss rate while securing a stable increase in our borrowers and satisfying returns for our funding partners. We rely on our risk management team to closely monitor the change in the market and update our risk management principles accordingly, which will be then used to train our Argus RM Model. If our risk management team or key members of such team were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may have to incur additional time and monetary cost to find a replacement to our risk management team that fits us, and our result of business operation and financial status may be adversely and severely impacted.

Credit and other information that we receive from third parties about borrowers may be inaccurate or may not accurately reflect the borrower's creditworthiness, which may compromise the accuracy of our credit assessment.

        For the purpose of credit assessment, we obtain from prospective borrowers and third parties certain information of the prospective borrowers, which may not be complete, accurate or reliable. The credit score assigned to a borrower may not reflect that particular borrower's actual creditworthiness because the credit score may be based on outdated, incomplete or inaccurate borrower information. We currently cannot determine for sure whether borrowers have outstanding loans through other online platforms at the time they obtain a loan from us even though we adopt certain investigation measures. This creates the risk that a borrower may borrow money through our platform in order to pay off loans on other online platforms and vice versa. If a borrower incurs additional debt before fully repaying any loan such borrower takes out on our platform, the additional debt may impair the ability of that borrower to make repayments on her loan. In addition, the additional debt may adversely affect the borrower's creditworthiness generally and could result in the financial distress or insolvency of the borrower. Meanwhile, if the price of the quality data on which we run our algorithms increases, we may not get access to the quality information at the same cost in the future. We may be forced to run our algorithms on fewer quality data, iterate our algorithms or pay more for quality information in the future, each adversely affecting our result of the operation.

If we fail to promote and maintain our brand in an effective and cost-efficient way, our business and results of operations may be harmed.

        The consumer finance industry is still new to the borrowers in China. Prospective borrowers may not be familiar with this market and may have difficulty distinguishing our products from those of our competitors. Convincing prospective borrowers of the value of our products is critical to increasing the number of transactions for borrowers and to the success of our business. We believe that developing

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and maintaining awareness of our brand effectively is critical to attracting and retaining borrowers. This, in turn, depends largely on the effectiveness of our borrower acquisition strategy, our marketing efforts, our collaboration with funding partners and the success of the channels we use to promote our platform. If any of our current borrower acquisition strategies or marketing channels become less effective, more costly or no longer feasible, we may not be able to attract new borrowers in a cost-effective manner or convert potential borrowers into active borrowers.

        Our collaboration with market-leading channel partners is essential to our borrower acquisition efforts. If such collaboration ceases or becomes less effective, for reasons attribute either to us or to our channel partners, we may face instant borrower acquisition pressure, and may need to incur additional cost to replace such partners for borrower acquisition, if we could replace them at all. Besides, if some of our channel partners were acquired or controlled by the competitors of 360 Group, our collaboration with such channel partners may be limited or severely and adversely impacted. We may not find new partners to replace our original ones.

        Our efforts to build our brand have caused us to incur expenses, and it is likely that our future marketing efforts will require us to incur additional expenses. These efforts may not result in increased operating revenue in the immediate future or any increases at all, and even if they do, any increases in operating revenue may not offset the expenses incurred. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand while incurring additional expenses, our results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected, and our ability to grow our business may be impaired.

If we are unable to maintain or increase the volume of loan originated through our platform or if we are unable to retain existing borrowers or attract new borrowers, or if we fail to meet the financial needs of our borrowers as they evolve and are therefore unable to capture their long-term growth potential, our business and results of operations will be adversely affected.

        The volume of loan originations through our platform has grown rapidly since our inception. The total amount of loans originated through our platform was RMB94.4 billion (US$13.7 billion) as of September 30, 2018, which increased from RMB436 million for the four months in 2016 after our inception. To maintain the high growth momentum of our platform, we must continuously increase the volume of loan originations by retaining current borrowers and attracting more borrowers. We intend to continue to dedicate significant resources to our borrower acquisition efforts. If there are insufficient qualified loan requests, our funding partners may consider withdrawing from our collaboration or lowering their funding commitments to us. If there are insufficient funding commitments, borrowers may be unable to obtain capital through our platform and may turn to other sources for their borrowing needs.

        The overall volume may be affected by several factors, including our brand recognition and reputation, the interest rates offered to borrowers relative to the market rates, the efficiency of our credit underwriting process, availability of our funding partners, the macroeconomic environment and other factors. In connection with the introduction of new products or response to general economic conditions, we may also impose more stringent borrower qualifications to ensure the quality of loans on our platform, which may negatively affect the growth of our loan origination volume. In addition, although we have entered into the framework collaboration agreement with 360 Group, pursuant to which 360 Group will provide us borrower acquisition service, we cannot assure you that we will continue to receive sufficient traffic from 360 Group or other support for our borrower acquisition. If any of our current user acquisition channels become less effective, if we are unable to continue to use any of these channels or if we are not successful in using new channels, we may not be able to attract new borrowers in a cost-effective manner or convert potential borrowers into active borrowers, and may even lose our existing borrowers to our competitors. If we are unable to attract qualified borrowers or if borrowers do not continue to participate in our platform at the current rates, we might be unable to

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increase our loan origination volume and revenues as we expect, and our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

If we fail to maintain collaboration with our financial institution funding partners or to maintain sufficient capacity to originate loans to our borrowers, our reputation, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

        Our top five financial institution funding partners contributed around 50% of total funding for all cumulative loan origination as of September 30, 2018. Our financial institution funding partners typically agree to provide funding to our borrowers who meet their predetermined criteria, subject to their credit approval process. These agreements have fixed terms of typically one year. In addition, while our borrowers' loan requests are usually approved if they fall within the parameters set and agreed upon by us and our financial institution funding partners, our funding partners may implement additional requirements in their approval process outside of our monitor and control. Thus there is no assurance that our financial institution funding partners could provide reliable, sustainable and adequate funding, either because they could decline to fund borrower loans originated on our platform or decline to renew or renegotiate their participation in our direct lending programs.

        Furthermore, as requested by the recently promulgated rules on consumer finance industry, we are currently working with our financial institution funding partners to update our collaboration model, including but not limited to upgrading our system as well as adopting new transaction process. However, we cannot assure you that all of our financial institution funding partners have the willingness and ability to finish system upgrade or adopting new transaction model. If our collaboration with some financial institution funding partners is found not in compliance with the applicable regulations or rules by governmental authorities, we may be requested to cease our collaboration with such financial institution funding partners, and our capacity to originate loans through our platform will be adversely and severely impacted.

        In addition, if PRC laws and regulations impose more restrictions on our collaboration with funding partners, these financial institution funding partners will become more selective in choosing collaboration partners, which may drive up the funding costs and the competition among online lending platforms to collaborate with a limited number of funding partners. Any of the above may materially increase the funding costs to our loans, which may adversely affect our results of operations and profitability. Furthermore, if the PRC government issues any laws and regulations that prohibit our collaboration with our financial institution funding partners, our collaboration with our funding partners may have to be terminated or suspended, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If our business arrangements with certain institutional partners were deemed to violate PRC laws and regulations, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

        We have secured certain funding from institutional funding partners through the channel of trusts and asset management plans in collaboration with two trust companies and one asset management company.

        According to our cooperative arrangement with trust companies and the asset management company, each trust and asset management plan had a specified term. Institutional funding partners invested in such trusts or asset management plans in the form of trust or asset management units, which entitled the institutional funding partner to the return on the investment with each unit. We were designated as the service provider for the trusts and asset management plans. If a credit application was approved by us, credit drawdown would be funded by the trusts to borrowers directly subject to the independent credit review of such trusts. These trusts and asset management plans were identified as the lender under the loan agreements with our borrowers. The trust and asset management plan

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remitted to the funding partners investment returns pursuant to the terms of the trust and plan that reflected funds initially provided by the funding partners. The investment gains would be distributed to the trust based on the actual loan interest. The trust company or asset management company, as appropriate, was responsible for administering the trust and was paid a service fee.

        In 2017, the trusts and assets management plans were set up with total assets of RMB1 billion which invested solely in loans on our platform. We are considered as the primary beneficiary of the trusts and asset management plans and thus consolidated such trusts' and plan's assets, liabilities, results of operations and cash flows.

        Although we have not been part of the fund-raising process by the trusts or the plan, we cannot assure you that our provision of services to the trusts or asset management plans will not be viewed by the PRC regulators as violating any laws or regulations. If we are prohibited from cooperating with trust companies and asset management companies, our access to sustainable funding may be adversely impacted, which may further increase the funding cost of our loans and affect our result of operations.

        We enter collaboration contracts with fixed terms with other service providers, such as marketing service providers or payment service providers. However, we cannot assure you that we can renew such collaboration agreements once they expire, or we can renew such agreements with the term we desire. Such service providers may also be demanded by their investors not to work with us, or form alliance to seek better terms dealing with us.

If Beijing Zixuan is prohibited from conducting its business or fails to attract sufficient individual investors to fund our loans, our business and results of operations will be adversely impacted.

        Beijing Zixuan, an affiliate of us and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Beijing Qibutianxia, funded 24.3% of loans originated through our platform since our inception and up to September 30, 2018. Beijing Zixuan is now actively applying for the peer-to-peer (P2P) lending registration, or the P2P registration. However, given the overall enforcement timetable for P2P registration might be delayed nationwide and the timeline of the government review of such P2P registration is indefinite, we cannot assure you Beijing Zixuan will finish registration in short time, if at all. PRC regulations on P2P lending industry is still evolving and Beijing Zixuan may be requested by the governmental authority to cease its business operation if it cannot finish its registration. If Beijing Zixuan is prohibited from conducting its business or fails to attract sufficient individual investors to fund our loans, we may need to secure additional funding or experience insufficiency in funding, which in turn will adversely impact our business and results of operations.

Our online microcredit company may not be able to provide a sufficient amount to fund the growth of our business. In addition, the regulatory regime and practice with respect to online microcredit companies are evolving and subject to uncertainty.

        In March 2017, we established an online microcredit company, Fuzhou Microcredit, which has obtained the approval of the relevant competent local authorities to fund loans. The authorized amounts are currently sufficient to meet our funding needs for on-balance sheet transactions. However, we may not be able to obtain the regulatory approvals to increase the authorized amounts or to establish additional online microcredit companies to fulfill our future growth need.

        Government authorities have issued certain rules, laws, and regulations to regulate the organization and business activities of online microcredit companies. However, due to the lack of the detailed rules on interpretation and implementation of such rules, laws and regulations and the fact that the rules, laws, and regulations are expected to continue to evolve with respect to the online microcredit companies, there are uncertainties as to how such rules, laws and regulations will be interpreted and implemented and whether there will be new rules, laws or regulations issued that would set further requirements and restrictions on online microcredit companies. We cannot assure you that

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our existing practice of online microcredit companies will be deemed to be in full compliance with all rules, laws and regulations that are applicable, or may become applicable to us in the future.

If our funding partners fail to comply with applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing laws and regulations, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

        In collaboration with our funding partners and payment companies, we have adopted various policies and procedures, such as internal controls and "know-your-customer" procedures, for anti-money laundering purposes. The Fintech Guidelines purports, among other things, to require internet financial service providers, including us, to comply with certain anti-money laundering requirements, including:

        There is no assurance that our anti-money laundering policies and procedures will protect us from being exploited for money laundering purposes or that we will be deemed to be in compliance with applicable anti-money laundering implementing rules, if and when adopted, given that our anti-money laundering obligations in the Fintech Guidelines. Any new requirement under money laundering laws could increase our costs and may expose us to potential sanctions if we fail to comply.

        In addition, we rely on our third-party service providers, in particular, the payment companies that handle the transfer of the repayment to have their own appropriate anti-money laundering policies and procedures. If any of our third-party service providers fails to comply with applicable anti-money laundering laws and regulations, our reputation could suffer and we could become subject to regulatory intervention, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        We have not been subject to fines or other penalties, or suffered business or other reputational harm, as a result of actual or alleged money laundering or terrorist financing activities in the past. However, our policies and procedures may not be completely effective in preventing other parties from using us, any of our funding partners or payment processors as a conduit for money laundering (including illegal cash operations) or terrorist financing without our knowledge. If we were to be associated with money laundering (including illegal cash operations) or terrorist financing, our reputation could suffer and we could become subject to regulatory fines, sanctions or legal enforcement, including being added to any "blacklists" that would prohibit certain parties from engaging in transactions with us, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Even if we, our funding partners and payment processors comply with the applicable anti-money laundering laws and regulations, we, funding partners and payment processors may not be able to fully eliminate money laundering and other illegal or improper activities in light of the complexity and the secrecy of these activities. Any negative perception of the industry, such as that arises from any failure of other online consumer finance service providers to detect or prevent money laundering activities, even if factually incorrect or based on isolated incidents, could compromise our image, undermine the trust and credibility we have established and negatively impact our financial condition and results of operation.

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We need to engage guarantee companies to provide credit enhancement or additional comfort to our funding partners, and we recognize guarantee liability for accounting purposes. If we fail to source and engage a guarantee company to our funding partners' satisfaction, at a reasonable price, our collaboration with our funding partners will deteriorate, and our results of operation may be adversely and severely impacted. If our guarantee liability recognition fails to address our current status, we may face unexpected changes to our financial conditions.

        To comply with Circular 141, we have engaged guarantee companies to provide credit enhancement to our funding partners, and one of our VIEs, Fuzhou Financing Guarantee, has obtained the license of conducting guarantee service. Even though we will use the licensed guarantee company of our own to provide service to our funding partners, we may continue to engage third-party insurance companies or guarantee companies to satisfy the needs of our business. We cannot, however, assure you that either our guarantee company could provide satisfying service to our funding partners from time to time, or we will always be able to source and engage guarantee companies to our funding partners' satisfaction. If we fail to source and engage guarantee companies to our funding partners' satisfaction, at a reasonable price, our collaboration with our funding partners will deteriorate or even suspended, and our results of operations will be materially and adversely affected. It is also possible that we have to pay a service fee to the third-party guarantee company that exceeds the reasonable market price, which will materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

        As we provide either guarantee deposit to our funding partners, or back-to-back guarantee to the third party guarantee companies, from the accounting prospective, we recognize the guarantee liability at fair value which incorporates the expectation of potential future payments under the guarantee and take into both non-contingent and contingent aspects of the guarantee. We have established an evaluation process designed to determine the adequacy of our impairment allowances and guarantee liabilities. While this evaluation process uses historical and other objective information, it is also dependent on our subjective assessment based upon our estimates and judgment. Actual losses are difficult to forecast, especially if such losses stem from factors beyond our historical experience. Given that the online consumer finance market is rapidly evolving, and is subject to various factors beyond our control, such as shifting trends in the market, regulatory framework, and overall economic conditions, we may not be able to accurately forecast the delinquency rate of our current target borrower base due to the lack of sufficient data. Therefore, our actual delinquency rate may be higher than we expected. If our credit risk assessment and expectations differ from actual circumstances or if the quality of the loans originated by us deteriorates, our guarantee liabilities may be insufficient to absorb actual credit losses and we may need to set aside additional provisions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If our loan products do not achieve sufficient market acceptance, our financial results and competitive position will be harmed.

        We have devoted significant resources to and will continue to put an emphasis on upgrading and marketing our existing loan product and enhancing its market awareness. We may also incur expenses and expend resources up front to develop and market new loan products and financial services that incorporate additional features, improve functionality or otherwise make our platform more attractive to borrowers. New loan products and financial services must achieve high levels of market acceptance in order for us to recoup our investments in developing and marketing them. To achieve market acceptance, it is essential for us to maintain and enhance our ability to match and recommend suitable financial products for our borrowers, the effectiveness of our curation process and our ability to provide relevant and timely content to meet changing borrower needs. If we are unable to respond to changes in borrower preference and deliver satisfactory and distinguishable borrower experience, borrowers and prospective borrowers may switch to competing platforms or obtain financial products directly from their providers. As a result, borrower access to and borrower activity on our platform will decline, our services and solutions will be less attractive to financial service providers and our business, financial performance and prospects will be materially and adversely affected.

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        Our existing and new loan products and financial services could fail to attain sufficient market acceptance for many reasons, including:

        If our existing and new loan products do not maintain or achieve adequate acceptance in the market, our competitive position, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

We face increasing competition, and if we do not compete effectively, our operating results could be harmed.

        The online consumer finance industry in China is highly competitive and evolving. We face competition from other online platforms, major internet players and traditional financial institutions.

        Our competitors operate with different business models, have different cost structures or participate selectively in different market segments. They may ultimately prove more successful or more adaptable to new regulatory, technological and other developments. Some of our current and potential competitors have significantly more financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we do, and may be able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, sale and support of their platforms. Our competitors may also have longer operating histories, more extensive borrowers, larger amounts of data, greater brand recognition and loyalty, and broader partner relationships than we do. For example, traditional financial institutions may invest in technology and enter into the online consumer finance industry. Experienced in financial product development and risk management, and being able to devote greater resource to the development, promotion, sale and technical support, they may gain an edge in the competition against us. Additionally, a current or potential competitor may acquire one or more of our existing competitors or form a strategic alliance with one or more of our competitors. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and future growth.

        Our competitors may be better at developing new products, responding to new technologies, charging lower fees on loans and undertaking more extensive marketing campaigns. When new competitors seek to enter our target market, or when existing market participants seek to increase their market share, they sometimes undercut the pricing and/or terms prevalent in that market, which could adversely affect our market share or ability to exploit new market opportunities. Also, since the online consumer finance industry in China is relatively new and fast evolving, potential borrowers may not fully understand how our platform works. Our pricing and terms could deteriorate if we fail to act to meet these competitive challenges.

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        Furthermore, in response to more stringent PRC laws and regulations regarding cash loans, more online lending platforms may expand their services and products to scenario-based lending, including partnering with e-commerce platforms, which may drive up the competition among online lending platforms. Such intensified competition may increase our operating costs and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability. To the extent that our competitors are able to offer more attractive terms to our business partners, such business partners may choose to terminate their relationships with us or request us to accept terms matching our competitors'.

        In addition, our competitors may implement certain procedures to reduce their fees in response to the current or potential PRC regulations on interest rates and fees charged by online lending platforms. Borrowers are generally interest sensitive with less brand loyalty. We may not succeed in utilizing the borrower stickiness if we fail to provide products with competitive prices. If we apply prices below the commercially reasonable level, our results of operations and financial conditions may be adversely impacted. If we are unable to compete with our competitors, or if we are forced to charge lower fees due to competitive pressures, we could experience reduced revenues or our platforms could fail to achieve market acceptance, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

If our ability to collect delinquent loans is impaired, our business and results of operations might be materially and adversely affected.

        Our in-house collection team handles the collection of delinquent loans within 60 days after the default. We also engage certain third-party collection service providers from time to time. If either our or our third-party service providers' collection methods, such as phone calls, and text messages, are not effective and we fail to respond quickly and improve our collection methods, our delinquent loan collection rate may decrease.

        While we have implemented and enforced policies and procedures relating to collection activities by us and third-party service providers, if those collection methods were to be viewed by the borrowers or regulatory authorities as harassments, threats or as other illegal conduct, we may be subject to lawsuits initiated by the borrowers or prohibited by the regulatory authorities from using certain collection methods. If this were to happen and we fail to adopt alternative collection methods in a timely manner or the alternative collection methods are proven to be ineffective, we might not be able to maintain our delinquent loan collection rate, and the funding partners' confidence in our platform may be negatively impacted. If any of the foregoing takes place and impairs our ability to collect delinquent loans, the loan origination volume on our platform will decrease, and our business and the results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Any harm to our brand or reputation or any damage to the reputation of the online consumer finance industry may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

        Enhancing the recognition and reputation of our brand is critical to our business and competitiveness. Factors that are vital to this objective include but are not limited to our ability to:

        Any malicious or innocent negative allegation made by the media or other parties about our company, including but not limited to our management, business, compliance with law, financial

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condition or prospects, whether with merit or not, could severely hurt our reputation and harm our business and operating results. As the market for China's online consumer finance is new and the regulatory framework for this market is also evolving, negative publicity about this industry may arise from time to time. Negative publicity about China's online consumer finance industry in general may also have a negative impact on our reputation, regardless of whether we have engaged in any inappropriate activities.

        In addition, certain factors that may adversely affect our reputation are beyond our control. Negative publicity about our partners, outsourced service providers or other counterparties, such as negative publicity about their debt collection practices and any failure by them to adequately protect the information of borrowers, to comply with applicable laws and regulations or to otherwise meet required quality and service standards could harm our reputation. Furthermore, any negative development in the online consumer finance industry, such as bankruptcies or failures of other platforms, and especially a large number of such bankruptcies or failures, or negative perception of the industry as a whole, such as that arises from any failure of other platforms to detect or prevent money laundering or other illegal activities, even if factually incorrect or based on isolated incidents, could compromise our image, undermine the trust and credibility we have established and impose a negative impact on our ability to attract new borrowers. Negative developments in the online consumer finance industry, such as widespread borrower defaults, fraudulent behavior and/or the closure of other online platforms, may also lead to tightened regulatory scrutiny of the sector and limit the scope of permissible business activities that may be conducted by online platforms like us. As we are the finance partner of 360 Group, any negative allegation about 360 Group may also have adverse impact on us. If any of the foregoing takes place, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Misconduct, errors and failure to function by our employees and third-party service providers could harm our business and reputation.

        We are exposed to many types of operational risks, including the risk of misconduct and errors by our employees and third-party service providers. Our business depends on our employees and third-party service providers to interact with prospective borrowers, process large numbers of transactions and support the loan collection process, all of which involve the use and disclosure of personal information. We could be materially adversely affected if transactions were redirected, misappropriated or otherwise improperly executed, if personal information was disclosed to unintended recipients or if an operational breakdown or failure in the processing of transactions occurred, whether as a result of human error, purposeful sabotage or fraudulent manipulation of our operations or systems. In addition, the manner in which we store and use certain personal information and interact with borrowers through our platform is governed by various PRC laws. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct or errors by employees or third-party service providers, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses. If any of our employees or third-party service providers take, convert or misuse funds, documents or data or fail to follow protocol when interacting with borrowers, such as during the collection process, we could be liable for damages and subject to regulatory actions and penalties. We could also be perceived to have originated or participated in the illegal misappropriation of funds, documents or data, or the failure to follow protocol, and therefore be subject to civil or criminal liability.

        Furthermore, we rely on certain third-party service providers, such as borrower acquisition, marketing and brand promotion, third-party payment platforms and collection service providers, to conduct our business. If these service providers failed to function properly, we cannot assure you that we would be able to find an alternative in a timely and cost-efficient manner or at all. We enter into collaboration contracts with fixed terms with such service providers. However, we cannot assure you

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that we can renew such collaboration agreements once they expire, or we can renew such agreements with the term we desire. Such service providers may also be demanded by their investors not to work with us, or form alliance to seek better terms dealing with us. Any of these occurrences could result in our diminished ability to operate our business, potential liability to borrowers, inability to attract borrowers, reputational damage, regulatory intervention and financial harm, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Fluctuations in interest rates could negatively affect our loan origination volume.

        Most of the loans originated through our platform are issued with fixed interest rates. Fluctuations in the interest rate environment may discourage funding partners to fund our platform, which may adversely affect our business. Meanwhile, if we fail to respond to the fluctuations in interest rates in a timely manner and reprice our loan products, our loan products may become less attractive to our borrowers.

Our ability to protect the confidential information of our borrowers may be adversely affected by cyberattacks, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins or similar disruptions.

        Our platform collects, stores and processes certain personal and other sensitive data from our borrowers, which makes it an attractive target and potentially vulnerable to cyberattacks, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins or similar disruptions. While we have taken steps to protect the confidential information that we have access to, our security measures could be breached. Because techniques used to sabotage or obtain unauthorized access to systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Any accidental or willful security breaches or other unauthorized access to our platform could cause confidential borrower information to be stolen and used for criminal purposes. Security breaches or unauthorized access to confidential information could also expose us to liability related to the loss of the information, time-consuming and expensive litigation and negative publicity. If security measures are breached because of third-party action, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise, or if design flaws in our technology infrastructure are exposed and exploited, our relationships with borrowers could be severely damaged, we could incur significant liability and our business and operations could be adversely affected.

        Meanwhile, if there is any failure by us to protect confidential information, we may be involved in various claims and litigations raised for privacy or other damages. Such claims and litigations will take a lot of time and resources to defend and we cannot assure you any result for us litigations.

If we fail to complete, obtain or maintain the value-added telecommunication license, requisite license, or approvals or filings in China, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

        PRC regulations impose sanctions for engaging in internet information services of a commercial nature without having obtained an internet content provider license, or the ICP license, and sanctions for engaging in the operation of online data processing and transaction processing without having obtained a value-added telecommunications service license, or the VATS license for online data processing and transaction processing, or ODPTP license (ICP and ODPTP are both sub-sets of value-added telecommunication business). These sanctions include corrective orders and warnings from the PRC communication administration authority, fines and confiscation of illegal gains and, in the case of significant infringements, the websites and mobile apps may be ordered to cease operation. Nevertheless, the interpretation of such regulations and PRC regulatory authorities' enforcement of such regulations in the context of online consumer finance industry remains uncertain, it is unclear whether online consumer finance service providers like us are required to obtain ICP license or ODPTP license, or any other kind of VATS licenses. We have not obtained any ICP license and

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ODPTP license to date for Shanghai Qiyu. Given the evolving regulatory environment of the consumer finance industry and value-added telecommunication business, we cannot rule out the possibility that the PRC government authorities will explicitly require any of our VIEs or subsidiaries of our VIEs to obtain additional ICP licenses, ODPTP licenses or other VATS licenses, or issue new regulatory requirements to institute a new licensing regime for our industry. We could be found in violation of any future laws and regulations, or of the laws and regulations currently in effect due to changes in the relevant authorities, or interpretation of these laws and regulations. We cannot assure you that we would be able to obtain or maintain any required license, regulatory approvals or filings in a timely manner, or at all, which would subject us to the sanctions such as the imposition of fines and the discontinuation or restriction of our operations or other sanctions as stipulated in the new regulatory rules, and materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations. Even though we intend to work proactively on applying the relevant licenses, due to the lack of detailed rules regulating the online consumer finance service and clarification of the nature of this innovative business model, we learned that the local telecommunication regulatory authority might put any applications on hold.

Our operations depend on the performance of the internet infrastructure and fixed telecommunications networks in China, as well as the effectiveness of mobile operating systems and networks, which we do not control.

        Almost all access to the internet in China is maintained through state-owned telecommunication operators under the administrative control and regulatory supervision of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. We primarily rely on a limited number of telecommunications service providers to provide us with data communications capacity through local telecommunications lines and internet data centers to host our servers. We have limited access to alternative networks or services in the event of disruptions, failures or other problems with China's internet infrastructure or the fixed telecommunications networks provided by telecommunications service providers. With the expansion of our business, we may be required to upgrade our technology and infrastructure to keep up with the increasing traffic on our platform. We cannot assure you that the internet infrastructure and the fixed telecommunications networks in China will be able to support the demands associated with the continued growth in internet usage.

        In addition, we have no control over the costs of the services provided by telecommunications service providers. If the prices we pay for telecommunications and internet services rise significantly, our financial performance may be adversely affected. Furthermore, if internet access fees or other charges to internet users increase, our user traffic may decline and our business may be harmed.

        Meanwhile, the operation of our mobile apps depends upon the effectiveness of mobile operating systems, networks and standards, which we do not control. If such systems or networks break down, or if the standards change and require different parameters on which the mobile apps run, our service through our applications will be disrupted, and our result of operations adversely affected.

Any significant disruption in service on our platform or in our computer systems, including events beyond our control, could prevent us from processing loans on our platform, reduce the attractiveness of our platform and result in a loss of borrowers.

        In the event of a platform outage and physical data loss, the performance of our platform and solutions would be materially and adversely affected. The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our platform, solutions and underlying technology infrastructure are critical to our operations and reputation and our ability to retain existing and attract new users and financial service providers. Much of our system hardware is hosted in a leased facility located in Beijing that is operated by 360 Group. We also maintain a real-time backup system in the same facility and a remote backup system in a separate facility. Our operations depend on our ability to protect our systems against

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damage or interruption from natural disasters, power or telecommunications failures, air quality issues, environmental conditions, computer viruses or attempts to harm our systems, criminal acts, and similar events. If there is a lapse in service or damage to our leased facilities, we could experience interruptions and delays in our service and may incur additional expense in arranging new facilities.

        Any interruptions or delays in the availability of our platform or solutions, whether as a result of third-party or our error, natural disasters or security breaches, whether accidental or willful, could harm our reputation and our relationships with users and financial service providers. Additionally, in the event of damage or interruption, we have no insurance policy to adequately compensate us for any losses that we may incur. Our disaster recovery plan has not been tested under actual disaster conditions, and we may not have sufficient capacity to recover all data and services in the event of an outage. These factors could damage our brand and reputation, divert our employees' attention and subject us to liability, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our platform and internal systems rely on software that is highly technical, and if it contains undetected errors, our business could be adversely affected.

        Our platform and internal systems rely on software that is highly technical and complex. In addition, our platform and internal systems depend on the ability of such software to store, retrieve, process and manage immense amounts of data. The software on which we rely has contained, and may now or in the future contain, undetected errors or bugs. Some errors may only be discovered after the code has been released for external or internal use. Errors or other design defects within the software on which we rely may result in a negative experience for borrowers and funding partners, delay introductions of new features or enhancements, result in errors or compromise our ability to protect borrower data or our intellectual property. Any errors, bugs or defects discovered in the software on which we rely could result in harm to our reputation, loss of borrowers or funding partners, loss of revenue or liability for damages, any of which could adversely affect our business and financial results.

We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.

        We regard our trademarks, domain names, software copyrights, know-how, proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on trademark and trade secret law and confidentiality, invention assignment and non-compete agreements with our employees and others to protect our proprietary rights. See "Business—Intellectual Properties" and "Regulations—Laws and Regulations relating to Intellectual Property." However, we cannot assure you that any of our intellectual property rights would not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, or such intellectual property will be sufficient to provide us with competitive advantages. In addition, other parties may misappropriate our intellectual property rights, which would cause us to suffer economic or reputational damages. Because of the rapid pace of technological change, nor can we assure you that all of our proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property will be patented in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all. Furthermore, parts of our business rely on technologies developed or licensed by other parties, or co-developed with other parties, and we may not be able to obtain or continue to obtain licenses and technologies from these other parties on reasonable terms, or at all.

        It is often difficult to register, maintain and enforce intellectual property rights in China. Statutory laws and regulations are subject to judicial interpretation and enforcement and may not be applied consistently due to the lack of clear guidance on statutory interpretation. Confidentiality, invention assignment and non-compete agreements may be breached by counterparties, and there may not be adequate remedies available to us for any such breach. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or to enforce our contractual rights in China. Preventing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and the steps we take may be

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inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our intellectual property. In the event that we resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, such litigation could result in substantial costs and in a diversion of our managerial and financial resources. We can provide no assurance that we will prevail in such litigation. In addition, our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become available to, or be independently discovered by, our competitors. To the extent that our employees or consultants use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in related know-how and inventions. Any failure in protecting or enforcing our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Some aspects of our platform include open source software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more of these open source licenses could negatively affect our business.

        Aspects of our platform include software covered by open source licenses. Open source license terms are often ambiguous, and there is little or no legal precedent governing the interpretation of many of the terms of certain of these licenses. Therefore, the potential impact of such terms on our business is somewhat unknown. If portions of our proprietary software are determined to be subject to an open source license, we could be required to publicly release the affected portions of our source code, re-engineer all or a portion of our technologies or otherwise be limited in the licensing of our technologies, each of which could reduce or eliminate the value of our technologies and loan products. There can be no assurance that efforts we take to monitor the use of open source software to avoid uses in a manner that would require us to disclose or grant licenses under our proprietary source code will be successful, and such use could inadvertently occur. This could harm our intellectual property position and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition. In addition to risks related to license requirements, usage of open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of the software. Many of the risks associated with the use of open source software cannot be eliminated, and could adversely affect our business.

We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims, which may be expensive to defend and may disrupt our business and operations.

        We cannot be certain that our operations or any aspects of our business do not or will not infringe upon or otherwise violate trademarks, copyrights, know-how, proprietary technologies or other intellectual property rights held by other parties. We may be from time to time in the future subject to legal proceedings and claims relating to the intellectual property rights of others. In addition, there may be other parties' trademarks, copyrights, know-how, proprietary technologies or other intellectual property rights that are infringed by our products or other aspects of our business without our awareness. Holders of such intellectual property rights may seek to enforce such intellectual property rights against us in China, the United States or other jurisdictions. If any infringement claims are brought against us, we may be forced to divert management's time and other resources from our business and operations to defend against these claims, regardless of their merits.

        Additionally, the application and interpretation of China's intellectual property right laws and the procedures and standards for granting trademarks, copyrights, know-how, proprietary technologies or other intellectual property rights in China are still evolving and are uncertain, and we cannot assure you that PRC courts or regulatory authorities would agree with our analysis. If we were found to have violated the intellectual property rights of others, we may be subject to liability for our infringement activities or may be prohibited from using such intellectual property, and we may incur licensing fees or be forced to develop alternatives of our own. As a result, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

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We have incurred net losses in the past and may incur net losses in the future.

        We had net losses of RMB21.8 million in 2016, RMB166.4 million (US$24.2 million) in 2017 and RMB469.3 million (US$68.3 million) for the nine months ended September 30, 2018. We cannot assure you that we will be able to generate net income in the future. We anticipate that our operating expenses will increase in the foreseeable future as we seek to continue to grow our business, attract borrowers and further enhance and develop our loan products and platform. These efforts may prove more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently to offset these higher expenses. There are other factors that could negatively affect our financial condition. For example, the default rates of the loans originated through our platform may be higher than expected, which may lead to lower than expected net revenues. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, our net revenue growth may slow and we may not be able to maintain profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.

Our business depends on the continued efforts of our management. If one or more of our key executives were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, our business may be severely disrupted.

        Our business operations depend on the continued services of our management, particularly the executive officers named in this prospectus, and teams in charge of our risk management, products development and collaboration with funding partners. While we have provided different incentives to our management, we cannot assure you that we can continue to retain their services. If one or more of our management were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to replace them easily or at all, our future growth may be constrained, our business may be severely disrupted and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected, and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain qualified personnel. In addition, although we have entered into confidentiality and non-competition agreements with our management, there is no assurance that any member of our management team will not join our competitors or form a competing business, or disclose confidential information to the public. If any dispute arises between our current or former officers and us, we may have to incur substantial costs and expenses in order to enforce such agreements in China or we may be unable to enforce them at all.

From time to time we may evaluate and potentially consummate strategic investments or acquisitions, which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business and adversely affect our financial results.

        We may evaluate and consider strategic investments, combinations, acquisitions or alliances to further increase the value of our platform. These transactions could be material to our financial condition and results of operations if consummated. If we are able to identify an appropriate business opportunity, we may not be able to successfully consummate the transaction, and even if we do consummate such a transaction, we may be unable to obtain the benefits or avoid the difficulties and risks of such transaction.

        Strategic investments or acquisitions will involve risks commonly encountered in business relationships, including:

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        We may not make any investments or acquisitions, or any future investments or acquisitions may not be successful, may not benefit our business strategy, may not generate sufficient revenues to offset the associated acquisition costs or may not otherwise result in the intended benefits. In addition, we cannot assure you that any future investment in or acquisition of new businesses or technology will lead to the successful development of new or enhanced loan products and services or that any new or enhanced loan products and services, if developed, will achieve market acceptance or prove to be profitable.

In connection with the audits of our combined and consolidated financial statements as of and for the period from the inception date to December 31, 2016 and the year ended 2017, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified two material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to develop and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud.

        Prior to this offering, we have been a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources with which we address our internal control over financial reporting. In connection with the audits of our combined and consolidated financial statements as of and for the period from the inception date to December 31, 2016 and the year ended 2017, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified two material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. As defined in the standards established by the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, a "material weakness" is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weakness that have been identified relates to our (i) lack of sufficient accounting personnel with U.S. GAAP knowledge and SEC financial reporting requirements and lack of accounting policies and procedures relating to financial reporting in accordance with U.S. GAAP and (ii) lack of formal internal control framework.

        These material weaknesses resulted in a significant number of adjustments and amendments to combined and consolidated financial statements and related disclosures under U.S. GAAP. The material

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weaknesses, if not timely remedied, may lead to significant misstatements in our combined and consolidated financial statements in the future.

        Neither we nor our independent registered public accounting firm undertook a comprehensive assessment of our internal control for purposes of identifying and reporting material weaknesses and other control deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. Had we performed a formal assessment of our internal control over financial reporting or had our independent registered public accounting firm performed an audit of our internal control over financial reporting, additional deficiencies may have been identified.

        Following the identification of the material weaknesses and other control deficiencies, we have taken measures and plan to continue to take measures to remedy these control deficiencies. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Internal Control Over Financial Reporting." However, the implementation of these measures may not fully address these deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting, and we cannot conclude that they have been fully remedied. Our failure to correct these control deficiencies or our failure to discover and address any other control deficiencies could result in inaccuracies in our financial statements and impair our ability to comply with applicable financial reporting requirements and related regulatory filings on a timely basis. Moreover, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could significantly hinder our ability to prevent fraud.

Our quarterly results may fluctuate and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business.

        Our quarterly results of operations, including the levels of our net revenue, operating cost and expenses, net (loss)/income and other key metrics may vary in the future due to a variety of factors, some of which are outside of our control, and period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful, especially given our limited operating history. Accordingly, the results for any one quarter are not necessarily an indication of future performance. Fluctuations in quarterly results may adversely affect the price of our ADSs.

        In addition, we may experience seasonality in our business, reflecting seasonal fluctuations in internet usage and traditional personal consumption patterns, as our borrowers typically use their borrowing proceeds to finance their personal consumption needs. While our rapid growth has somewhat masked this seasonality, our results of operations could be affected by such seasonality in the future.

Competition for employees is intense, and we may not be able to attract and retain the qualified and skilled employees needed to support our business.

        We believe our success depends on the efforts and talent of our employees, including risk management, software engineering, financial and marketing personnel. Our future success depends on our continued ability to attract, develop, motivate and retain qualified and skilled employees. Competition for highly skilled technical, risk management and financial personnel is extremely intense. We may not be able to hire and retain this personnel at compensation levels consistent with our existing compensation and salary structure. Some of the companies with which we compete for experienced employees have greater resources than we have and may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment.

        In addition, we invest significant time and expenses in training our employees, which increases their value to competitors who may seek to recruit them. If we fail to retain our employees, we could incur significant expenses in hiring and training their replacements, and our ability to operate our platform could diminish, resulting in a material adverse effect to our business.

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Increases in labor costs in the PRC may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

        The economy in China has experienced increases in inflation and labor costs in recent years. As a result, average wages in the PRC are expected to continue to increase. In addition, we are required by PRC laws and regulations to pay various statutory employee benefits, including pension, housing fund, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit of our employees. The relevant government agencies may examine whether an employer has made adequate payments to the statutory employee benefits, and those employers who fail to make adequate payments may be subject to late payment fees, fines and/or other penalties. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will continue to increase. Unless we are able to control our labor costs or pass on these increased labor costs to our users by increasing the fees for our services, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

We may not have sufficient business insurance coverage.

        Insurance companies in China currently do not offer as extensive an array of insurance products as insurance companies in more developed economies. Currently, we do not have any business liability or disruption insurance to cover our operations. We have determined that the costs of insuring for these risks and the difficulties associated with acquiring such insurance on commercially reasonable terms make it impractical for us to have such insurance. Any uninsured business disruptions may result in our incurring substantial costs and the diversion of resources, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

If the PRC government deems that the contractual arrangements in relation to our VIEs do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.

        Foreign ownership of internet-based businesses, such as the distribution of online information, is subject to restrictions under current PRC laws and regulations. For example, foreign investors are generally not allowed to own more than 50% of the equity interests in a value-added telecommunications service provider and any such foreign investor must have experience in providing value-added telecommunications services overseas and maintain a good track record in accordance with the Guiding Catalog for Foreign Investment Industries promulgated in 2007, as amended in 2011, 2015, 2017, and 2018, and other applicable laws and regulations.

        We are a Cayman Islands company and our PRC subsidiaries are considered foreign-invested enterprises. We have set up a series of contractual arrangements entered into among our WFOE, our VIEs, and the record holders of our VIEs to conduct our operations in China. For a detailed description of these contractual arrangements, see "Corporate History and Structure." As a result of these contractual arrangements, we exert control over our VIEs and consolidate their operating results in our financial statements under U.S. GAAP. Shanghai Qiyu has been operating our online consumer finance business, including, among others, operations of our 360 Jietiao since its incorporation. According to relevant PRC laws and regulations, Shanghai Qiyu may be required to obtain VATS licenses. See "Regulations—Regulations on Foreign Investment Restrictions—Regulations on value-added telecommunications services." Fuzhou Microcredit, which also provides loans through our 360 Jietiao, has obtained a microcredit license from the relevant competent local authorities.

        In the opinion of our PRC counsel, Commerce & Finance Law Offices, based on its understanding of the relevant PRC laws and regulations, each of the contracts among our WFOE, our VIEs and their shareholders is valid, binding and enforceable in accordance with its terms. However, Commerce &

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Finance Law Offices has also advised us that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current or future PRC laws and regulations and there can be no assurance that the PRC government will ultimately take a view that is consistent with the opinion of our PRC counsel.

        It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws, regulations or rules relating to the "variable interest entity" structure will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. In particular, in January 2015, the Ministry of Commerce, or the MOFCOM published a discussion draft of the proposed Foreign Investment Law for public review and comments. Among other things, the draft Foreign Investment Law expands the definition of foreign investment and introduces the principle of "actual control" in determining whether a company is considered a foreign-invested enterprise, or an FIE. Under the draft Foreign Investment Law, variable interest entities would also be deemed as FIEs, if they are ultimately "controlled" by foreign investors, and be subject to restrictions on foreign investments. However, the draft law has not taken a position on what actions will be taken with respect to the existing companies with the "variable interest entity" structure, whether or not these companies are controlled by Chinese parties. It is uncertain when the draft would be signed into law and whether the final version would have any substantial changes from the draft. If the ownership structure, contractual arrangements and business of our company, our PRC subsidiaries or our variable interest entity are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or we fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant governmental authorities would have broad discretion in dealing with such violation, including levying fines, confiscating our income or the income of our VIEs, revoking the business licenses or operating licenses of our WFOE or our VIEs, shutting down our servers or blocking our online platform, discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operations, requiring us to undergo a costly and disruptive restructuring, restricting or prohibiting our use of proceeds from this offering to finance our business and operations in China, and taking other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business. Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of these occurrences result in our inability to direct the activities of our VIEs, and/or our failure to receive economic benefits from our VIEs, we may not be able to consolidate their results into our combined and consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

We rely on contractual arrangements with our VIEs and the shareholders of our VIEs for all of our business operations, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control.

        We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with our VIEs and the shareholders of our VIEs, to operate our online consumer finance business, including, among others, the operation of 360 Jietiao, as well as certain other complementary businesses. For a description of these contractual arrangements, see "Corporate History and Structure." These contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over our VIEs. For example, our VIEs or the shareholder of our VIEs may fail to fulfill their contractual obligations with us, such as failure to maintain our platform and use the domain names and trademarks in a manner as stipulated in the contractual arrangements, or taking other actions that are detrimental to our interests.

        If we had direct ownership of our VIEs, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of our VIEs, which in turn could implement changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management and operational level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, we rely on the performance by our VIEs and the shareholders of our VIEs of their obligations under the contractual arrangements to exercise control over our VIEs. The shareholders of our VIEs may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. Such risks exist throughout the period in which we intend to operate

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our business through the contractual arrangements with our VIEs and the shareholders of our VIEs. Although we have the right, subject to registration process with PRC governmental authorities, to replace Beijing Qibutianxia as the record holder of our VIEs under the contractual arrangements, if it becomes uncooperative or any dispute relating to these contracts remains unresolved, we will have to enforce our rights under these contracts through the operations of PRC laws and arbitration, litigation and other legal proceedings, the outcome of which will be subject to uncertainties. See "—Any failure by our VIEs or the shareholders of our VIEs to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material adverse effect on our business." Therefore, our contractual arrangements with our VIEs and the shareholders of our VIEs may not be as effective in ensuring our control over the relevant portion of our business operations as direct ownership would be.

Any failure by our VIEs or the shareholders of our VIEs to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material adverse effect on our business.

        We have entered into a series of contractual arrangements with our VIEs, and the shareholders of our VIEs. For a description of these contractual arrangements, see "Corporate History and Structure." If our VIEs or the shareholders of our VIEs fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements. We may also have to rely on legal remedies under PRC laws, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief, and claiming damages, which we cannot assure you will be effective under PRC laws. For example, if the shareholders of our VIEs were to refuse to transfer its equity interests in our VIEs to us or our designee when we exercise the purchase option pursuant to these contractual arrangements, or if it was otherwise to act in bad faith toward us, then we may have to take legal actions to compel them to perform its contractual obligations.

        All of these contractual arrangements are governed by and interpreted in accordance with PRC law, and disputes arising from these contractual arrangements between us and our VIEs will be resolved through arbitration in China. For the sake of clarity, the arbitration provisions here relate to the claims arising from the contractual relationship created by the VIE agreements, rather than claims under the US federal securities laws, and they do not prevent our shareholders or ADS holders from pursuing claims under the US federal securities laws in the United States. The legal system in the PRC is not as developed as in some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a variable interest entity should be interpreted or enforced under PRC laws. There remain significant uncertainties regarding the ultimate outcome of such arbitration should legal action become necessary. In addition, under PRC laws, rulings by arbitrators are final and parties cannot appeal arbitration results in court unless such rulings are revoked or determined unenforceable by a competent court. If the losing parties fail to carry out the arbitration awards within a prescribed time limit, the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would require additional expenses and delay. In the event that we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our VIEs, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected. See "—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to us."

The shareholders of our VIEs may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

        The record holders of our VIEs are beneficially owned by the same group of our shareholders. However, as we raise additional capital, including this offering, and our shareholders sell the shares

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they hold in our company in the future, the interests of such record holders of our VIEs might become different from the interests of our company as a whole. Under influence of its shareholders, such record holders of our VIEs may breach, or cause our VIEs to breach, the existing contractual arrangements we have with them, which would have a material adverse effect on our ability to effectively control our VIEs and receive economic benefits from them. For example, the record holders of our VIEs may be able to cause our agreements with our VIEs to be performed in a manner adverse to us by, among other things, failing to remit payments due under the contractual arrangements to us on a timely basis. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, it will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor.

        Currently, we do not have any arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest between our VIEs' shareholders and our company, except that we could exercise our purchase option under the option agreement with such shareholders to request it to transfer all of its equity interests in our VIEs to a PRC entity or individual designated by us, to the extent permitted by PRC laws. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and the shareholders of our VIEs, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in the disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

Contractual arrangements in relation to our VIEs may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or our VIEs owe additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition and the value of your investment.

        Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities. The PRC enterprise income tax law requires every enterprise in China to submit its annual enterprise income tax return together with a report on transactions with its related parties to the relevant tax authorities. The tax authorities may impose reasonable adjustments on taxation if they have identified any related party transactions that are inconsistent with arm's length principles. We may face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements between our WFOE, our VIEs, and the shareholders of our VIEs were not entered into on an arm's length basis in such a way as to result in an impermissible reduction in taxes under applicable PRC laws, regulations and rules, and adjust our VIEs' income in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction of expense deductions recorded by our VIEs for PRC tax purposes, which could in turn increase their tax liabilities. In addition, if our WFOE requests the shareholders of our VIEs to transfer its equity interests in our VIEs at nominal or no value pursuant to these contractual arrangements, such transfer could be viewed as a gift and subject our WFOE to PRC income tax. Furthermore, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties on our VIEs for the adjusted but unpaid taxes according to the applicable regulations. Our financial position could be materially and adversely affected if our VIEs' tax liabilities increase or if they are required to pay late payment fees and other penalties.

We may lose the ability to use and enjoy assets held by our VIEs that are material to the operation of our business if the entity goes bankrupt or becomes subject to a dissolution or liquidation proceeding.

        Our VIEs hold certain substantially all of our assets, some of which are material to our operation, including, among others, intellectual properties, hardware and software. Under the contractual arrangements, our VIEs may not, and the shareholders of our VIEs may not cause them to, in any manner, sell, transfer, mortgage or dispose of their assets or their legal or beneficial interests in the business without our prior consent. However, in the event our VIEs' shareholders breach these contractual arrangements and voluntarily liquidate our VIEs, or our VIEs declare bankruptcy and all or part of their assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, or are otherwise disposed of without our consent, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities, which

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could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If our VIEs undergo a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, independent third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Changes in China's economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

        Substantially all of our operations are located in China. Accordingly, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally and by continued economic growth in China as a whole.

        The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including but not limited to the extent of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the Chinese government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over China's economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

        While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The Chinese government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations. In addition, in the past the Chinese government has implemented certain measures, including interest rate increases, to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity in China.

A downturn in the Chinese or global economy could reduce the demand for consumer loans, which could materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

        The global financial markets have experienced significant disruptions since 2008 and the United States, Europe and other economies have experienced periods of recession. The recovery from the lows of 2008 and 2009 has been uneven and is facing new challenges, including the escalation of the European sovereign debt crisis from 2011 and the slowdown of the Chinese economy since 2012. It is unclear whether the Chinese economy will resume its high growth rate. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world's leading economies, including the United States and China. There have also been concerns over unrest in Ukraine, the Middle East and Africa, which have resulted in volatility in financial and other markets. There have also been concerns about the economic effect of the tensions in the relationship between China and surrounding Asian countries. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions. Any prolonged slowdown in the global or Chinese economy may reduce the demand for consumer loans and have a negative impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, continued

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turbulence in the international markets may adversely affect our ability to access the capital markets to meet liquidity needs.

Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to us.

        The PRC legal system is based on written statutes and prior court decisions have limited value as precedents. Since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.

        From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published in a timely manner or at all) that may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the enactment timetable, interpretation and implementation of draft PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

        The MOFCOM published a discussion draft of the proposed Foreign Investment Law in January 2015 aiming to, upon its enactment, replace the trio of existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. The draft Foreign Investment Law embodies an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. The MOFCOM had solicited comments on this draft and substantial uncertainties exist with respect to its enactment timetable, interpretation and implementation. The draft Foreign Investment Law, if enacted as proposed, may materially impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations in many aspects.

        Among other things, the draft Foreign Investment Law expands the definition of foreign investment and introduces the principle of "actual control" in determining whether a company is considered a FIE. The draft Foreign Investment Law specifically provides that entities established in China but "controlled" by foreign investors will be treated as FIEs, whereas an entity set up in a foreign jurisdiction would nonetheless be, upon market entry clearance by the MOFCOM, treated as a PRC domestic investor provided that the entity is "controlled" by PRC entities and/or citizens. In this connection, "foreign investors" refers to the following subjects making investments within the PRC: (i) natural persons without PRC nationality; (ii) enterprises incorporated under the laws of countries or regions other than China; (iii) the governments of countries or regions other than the PRC and the departments or agencies thereunder; and (iv) international organizations. Domestic enterprises under the control of the subjects as mentioned in the preceding sentence are deemed foreign investors, and "control" is broadly defined in the draft law to cover the following summarized categories: (i) holding, directly or indirectly, not less than 50% of shares, equities, share of voting rights or other similar rights of the subject entity; (ii) holding, directly or indirectly, less than 50% of the voting rights of the subject

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entity but having the power to secure at least 50% of the seats on the board or other equivalent decision making bodies, or having the voting power to material influence on the board, the shareholders' meeting or other equivalent decision making bodies; or (iii) having the power to exert decisive influence, via contractual or trust arrangements, over the subject entity's operations, financial matters or other key aspects of business operations. Once an entity is determined to be an FIE, it will be subject to the foreign investment restrictions or prohibitions set forth in a "catalog of special administrative measures," which is classified into the "catalog of prohibitions" and "the catalog of restrictions," to be separately issued by the State Council later. Foreign investors are not allowed to invest in any sector set forth in the catalog of prohibitions. However, unless the underlying business of the FIE falls within the catalog of restrictions, which calls for market entry clearance by the MOFCOM, prior approval from governmental authorities as mandated by the existing foreign investment legal regime would no longer be required for establishment of the FIE.

        The "variable interest entity" structure, or VIE structure, has been adopted by many PRC-based companies, including us, to obtain necessary licenses and permits in the industries that are currently subject to foreign investment restrictions in China. See "—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure" and "Corporate History and Structure." Under the draft Foreign Investment Law, VIEs that are controlled via contractual arrangement would also be deemed as FIEs, if they are ultimately "controlled" by foreign investors. Therefore, for any companies with a VIE structure in an industry category that is on the "catalog of restrictions," the VIE structure may be deemed a domestic investment only if the ultimate controlling person(s) is/are of PRC nationality (either PRC companies or PRC citizens). Conversely, if the actual controlling person(s) is/are of foreign nationalities, then the VIEs will be treated as FIEs and any operation in the industry category on the "catalog of restrictions" without market entry clearance may be considered as illegal.

        In addition, the draft Foreign Investment Law does not indicate what actions shall be taken with respect to the existing companies with a VIE structure, whether or not these companies are controlled by Chinese parties. Moreover, it is uncertain when the draft would be signed into law and whether the final version would have any substantial changes from the draft. If the ownership structure, contractual arrangements and business of our company, our PRC subsidiaries or our VIEs are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or we fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant governmental authorities would have broad discretion in dealing with such violation, including levying fines, confiscating our income or the income of our VIEs, revoking the business licenses or operating licenses of our WFOE or our VIEs, shutting down our servers or blocking our online platform, discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operations, requiring us to undergo a costly and disruptive restructuring, restricting or prohibiting our use of proceeds from this offering to finance our business and operations in China, and taking other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business. Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Were this to occur, our results of operations and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected and the market price of our ADSs may decline.

        The draft Foreign Investment Law, if enacted as proposed, may also materially impact our corporate governance practice and increase our compliance costs. For instance, the draft Foreign Investment Law imposes stringent ad hoc and periodic information reporting requirements on foreign investors and the applicable FIEs. Aside from an investment information report required at each investment, and investment amendment reports, which shall be submitted upon alteration of investment specifics, it is mandatory for entities established by foreign investors to submit an annual report, and large foreign investors meeting certain criteria are required to report on a quarterly basis. Any company found to be non-compliant with these reporting obligations may potentially be subject to fines and/or administrative or criminal liabilities, and the persons directly responsible may be subject to criminal liabilities.

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We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of internet-related businesses and companies, and any lack of requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to our business may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

        The PRC government extensively regulates the internet industry, including foreign ownership of, and the licensing and permit requirements pertaining to, companies in the internet industry. These internet-related laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations.

        We only have contractual control over our website and mobile app platform. We do not directly own the website and mobile app platform due to the restriction of foreign investment in businesses providing value-added telecommunications services in China, including internet information provision services. This may significantly disrupt our business, subject us to sanctions, compromise enforceability of related contractual arrangements, or have other harmful effects on us.

        The evolving PRC regulatory system for the internet industry may lead to the establishment of new regulatory agencies. For example, in May 2011, the State Council announced the establishment of a new department, the Cyberspace Administration of China, (with the involvement of the State Council Information Office, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT, and the Ministry of Public Security). The primary role of this new agency is to facilitate the policy-making and legislative development in this field, to direct and coordinate with the relevant departments in connection with online content administration and to deal with cross-ministry regulatory matters in relation to the internet industry.

        According to relevant PRC laws and regulations, any enterprise must obtain a value-added telecommunication business license to operate value-added telecommunication business. As a result, our online platform, 360 Jietiao, operated by Shanghai Qiyu, one of our VIEs, may be required to obtain VATS license. Furthermore, it is uncertain if Fuzhou Microcredit will be required to obtain a separate operating license with respect to our mobile app or website in addition to the VATS license.

        The interpretation and application of existing PRC laws, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies relating to the internet industry have created substantial uncertainties regarding the legality of existing and future foreign investments in, and the businesses and activities of, internet businesses in China, including our business. We cannot assure you that we have obtained all the permits or licenses required for conducting our business in China or will be able to maintain our existing licenses or obtain new ones. If the PRC government considers that we were operating without the proper approvals, licenses or permits or promulgates new laws and regulations that require additional approvals or licenses or imposes additional restrictions on the operation of any part of our business, it has the power, among other things, to levy fines, confiscate our income, revoke our business licenses, and require us to discontinue our relevant business or impose restrictions on the affected portion of our business. Any of these actions by the PRC government may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiary to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiary to make payments to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

        We are a holding company, and we rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiary for our cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders and service any debt we may incur. If our PRC subsidiary incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may

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require our PRC subsidiary to adjust its taxable income under the contractual arrangements it currently has in place with our VIEs in a manner that would materially and adversely affect their ability to pay dividends and other distributions to us. See "—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—Contractual arrangements in relation to our VIEs may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or our VIEs owe additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition and the value of your investment."

        Under PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiary, as wholly foreign-owned enterprises in China, may pay dividends only out of its accumulated after-tax profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise is required to set aside at least 10% of its accumulated after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund certain statutory reserve funds, until the aggregate amount of such funds reaches 50% of its registered capital. At its discretion, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise may allocate a portion of its after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to employee benefits and bonus funds. These reserve funds and employee benefits and bonus funds are not distributable as cash dividends.

        In response to the persistent capital outflow and the Renminbi's depreciation against U.S. dollar in the fourth quarter of 2016, the People's Bank of China and the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, have implemented a series of capital control measures, including stricter vetting procedures for China-based companies to remit foreign currency for overseas acquisitions, dividend payments and shareholder loan repayments. For instance, the SAFE issued the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Further Improving and Adjusting the Policy for Foreign Exchange Control of Capital Accounts, or the Circular 2, on May 12, 2014, which provides that offshore Renminbi loans provided by a domestic enterprise to offshore enterprises that it holds equity interests in shall not exceed 30% of such equity interests. The Circular 2 may constrain our PRC subsidiary's ability to provide offshore loans to us. The PRC government may continue to strengthen its capital controls and our PRC subsidiary's dividends and other distributions may be subjected to tighter scrutiny in the future. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiary to pay dividends or make other distributions to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends, or otherwise fund and conduct our business. See also "—If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders."

PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans to or make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiary, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

        Any funds we transfer to our PRC subsidiary, either as a shareholder loan or as an increase in registered capital, are subject to approval by or registration with relevant governmental authorities in China. According to the relevant PRC regulations on foreign-invested enterprises in China, capital contributions to our PRC subsidiary are subject to the requirement of making necessary filings in the Foreign Investment Comprehensive Management Information System, or FICMIS, and registration with other governmental authorities in China. In addition, (a) any foreign loan procured by our PRC subsidiary is required to be registered with SAFE, or its local branches, and (b) our PRC subsidiary may not procure loans which exceed the difference between its registered capital and its total investment amount as recorded in FICMIS. Any medium or long term loan to be provided by us to a variable interest entity of our company must be recorded and registered by the National Development and Reform Committee and SAFE or its local branches. We may not complete such recording or registrations on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future capital contributions or foreign loans by us to our PRC subsidiary. If we fail to complete such recording or registration, our ability to use the

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proceeds of this offering and to capitalize our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

        In 2008, SAFE promulgated the Circular on the Relevant Operating Issues Concerning the Improvement of the Administration of the Payment and Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 142, which used to regulate the conversion by foreign-invested enterprises of foreign currency into Renminbi by restricting the usage of converted Renminbi. On March 30, 2015, SAFE promulgated the Circular on Reforming the Management Approach Regarding the Foreign Exchange Capital Settlement of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19. SAFE Circular 19 took effect as of June 1, 2015 and superseded SAFE Circular 142 on the same date. SAFE Circular 19 introduces a nationwide reform of the administration of the settlement of the foreign exchange capitals of foreign-invested enterprises and allows foreign-invested enterprises to settle their foreign exchange capital at their discretion, but continues to prohibit foreign-invested enterprises from using the Renminbi fund converted from their foreign exchange capitals for expenditures beyond their business scopes. On June 9, 2016, SAFE promulgated the Circular on Reforming and Standardizing the Administrative Provisions on Capital Account Foreign Exchange, or SAFE Circular 16. SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 continue to prohibit foreign-invested enterprises from, among other things, using Renminbi fund converted from its foreign exchange capitals for expenditure beyond its business scope, investment and financing (except for security investment or guarantee products issued by bank), providing loans to non-affiliated enterprises or constructing or purchasing real estate not for self-use. SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 may significantly limit our ability to transfer to and use in China the net proceeds from this offering, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the price of our ADSs.

        The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in political and economic conditions in China and by China's foreign exchange policies. On July 21, 2005, the PRC government changed its decade-old policy of pegging the value of the Renminbi to the U.S. dollar, and the Renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. dollar over the following three years. Between July 2008 and June 2010, this appreciation halted and the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar remained within a narrow band. Since June 2010, the Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. On November 30, 2015, the Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) completed the regular five-year review of the basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right, or the SDR, and decided that with effect from October 1, 2016, the Renminbi is determined to be a freely usable currency and will be included in the SDR basket as a fifth currency, along with the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the British pound. Through the fourth quarter of 2016, the Renminbi has depreciated significantly in the backdrop of a surging U.S. dollar and persistent capital outflows of China. With the development of the foreign exchange market and progress towards interest rate liberalization and Renminbi internationalization, the PRC government may in the future announce further changes to the exchange rate system and we cannot assure you that the Renminbi will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future.

        Significant revaluation of the Renminbi may have a material and adverse effect on your investment. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we receive from this offering into Renminbi for our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert our Renminbi amounts into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for

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dividends on our ordinary shares or ADSs or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us.

        Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all.

        In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency.

Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our net revenue effectively and affect the value of your investment.

        The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive substantially all of our net revenue in Renminbi. Under our current corporate structure, our company in the Cayman Islands relies on dividend payments from our PRC subsidiary to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, such as profit distributions and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. Therefore, our PRC subsidiary is able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to us without prior approval from SAFE, subject to the condition that the remittance of such dividends outside of the PRC complies with certain procedures under PRC foreign exchange regulation, such as the overseas investment registrations by the shareholders of our company who are PRC residents. But approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies.

        In light of the flood of capital outflows of China in 2016 due to the weakening Renminbi, the PRC government has imposed more restrictive foreign exchange policies and stepped up scrutiny of major outbound capital movement. More restrictions and substantial vetting process are put in place by SAFE to regulate cross-border transactions falling under the capital account. The PRC government may at its discretion further restrict access in the future to foreign currencies for current account transactions. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs.

Failure to make adequate contributions to various employee benefit plans and withhold individual income tax on employees' salaries as required by PRC regulations may subject us to penalties.

        Companies operating in China are required to participate in various government sponsored employee benefit plans, including certain social insurance, housing funds and other welfare-oriented payment obligations, and contribute to the plans in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries of our employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time at locations where we operate our businesses. The requirement of employee benefit plans has not been implemented consistently by the local governments in China given the different levels of economic development in different locations. Companies operating in China are also required to withhold individual income tax on employees' salaries based on the actual salary of each employee upon payment. If we do not make adequate employee benefit payments, we may be required to make up the contributions for these plans as well as to pay late fees and fines; with respect to the underwithheld

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individual income tax, we may be required to make up sufficient withholding and pay late fees and fines. If we are subject to late fees or fines in relation to the underpaid employee benefits and underwithheld individual income tax, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

The M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

        The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Companies by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in 2006 and amended in 2009, and some other regulations and rules concerning mergers and acquisitions established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law requires that the MOFCOM shall be notified in advance of any concentration of undertaking if certain thresholds are triggered. In addition, the security review rules issued by the MOFCOM that became effective in September 2011 specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise "national defense and security" concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise "national security" concerns are subject to strict review by the MOFCOM, and the rules prohibit any activities attempting to bypass a security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement. In the future, we may grow our business by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the above-mentioned regulations and other relevant rules to complete such transactions could be time consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from the MOFCOM or its local counterparts may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may limit our PRC subsidiary's ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us or otherwise expose us or our PRC resident beneficial owners to liability and penalties under PRC law.

        SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Relating to PRC Resident's Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, in July 2014 that requires PRC residents or entities to register with SAFE or its local branch in connection with their establishment or control of an offshore entity established for the purpose of overseas investment or financing. In addition, such PRC residents or entities must update their SAFE registrations when the offshore special purpose vehicle undergoes material events relating to any change of basic information (including change of such PRC residents or entities, name and operation term), increases or decreases in investment amount, transfers or exchanges of shares, or mergers or divisions.

        SAFE Circular 37 is issued to replace the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for PRC Residents Engaging in Financing and Roundtrip Investments through Overseas Special Purpose Vehicles.

        If our shareholders who are PRC residents or entities do not complete their registration with the local SAFE branches, our PRC subsidiary may be prohibited from distributing their profits and proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to us, and we may be restricted in our ability to contribute additional capital to our PRC subsidiary. Moreover, failure to comply with SAFE registration described above could result in liability under PRC laws for evasion of applicable foreign exchange restrictions.

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        However, we may not be informed of the identities of all the PRC residents or entities holding direct or indirect interest in our company, nor can we compel our shareholders to comply with the requirements of SAFE Circular 37. As a result, we cannot assure you that all of our shareholders who are PRC residents or entities have complied with, and will in the future make or obtain any applicable registrations or approvals required by, SAFE Circular 37. Failure by such shareholders to comply with SAFE Circular 37, or failure by us to amend the foreign exchange registrations of our PRC subsidiary, could subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities, limit our PRC subsidiary's ability to make distributions or pay dividends to us or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.

Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

        Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who participate in stock incentive plans in overseas non-publicly-listed companies may submit applications to SAFE or its local branches for the foreign exchange registration with respect to offshore special purpose vehicles. In the meantime, our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens, subject to limited exceptions, and who have been granted stock options by us, may follow the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly-Listed Company, promulgated by SAFE in 2012, or the 2012 SAFE Notices. Pursuant to the 2012 SAFE Notices, PRC citizens and non-PRC citizens who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year who participate in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be the PRC subsidiaries of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. In addition, an overseas entrusted institution must be retained to handle matters in connection with the exercise or sale of stock options and the purchase or sale of shares and interests. We and our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who reside in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year and who have been granted stock options will be subject to these regulations when our company becomes an overseas listed company upon the completion of this offering. Failure to complete SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions, and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiary and limit our PRC subsidiary's ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional incentive plans for our directors, executive officers and employees under PRC law. See "Regulations—Regulations on Foreign Exchange—Regulations on stock incentive plans."

        The State Administration of Taxation, or SAT, has issued certain circulars concerning employee stock options and restricted shares. Under these circulars, our employees working in China who exercise stock options or are granted restricted shares will be subject to PRC individual income tax. Our PRC subsidiary has obligations to file documents related to employee stock options or restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of those employees who exercise their share options. If our employees fail to pay or we fail to withhold their income taxes according to relevant laws and regulations, we may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other PRC governmental authorities. See "Regulations—Regulations on Foreign Exchange—Regulations on stock incentive plans."

If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders.

        Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, an enterprise established outside of the PRC with a "de facto management body" within the PRC is considered a resident

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enterprise and will be subject to the enterprise income tax on its global income at the rate of 25%. The implementation rules define the term "de facto management body" as the body that exercises full and substantial control over and overall management of the business, productions, personnel, accounts and properties of an enterprise. In April 2009, the SAT issued a circular, known as Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the "de facto management body" of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Although this circular only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners like us, the criteria set forth in the circular may reflect the SAT's general position on how the "de facto management body" test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of all offshore enterprises. According to Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be regarded as a PRC tax resident by virtue of having its "de facto management body" in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its global income only if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the primary location of the day-to-day operational management is in the PRC; (ii) decisions relating to the enterprise's financial and human resource matters are made or are subject to approval by organizations or personnel in the PRC; (iii) the enterprise's primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholder resolutions, are located or maintained in the PRC; and (iv) at least 50% of voting board members or senior executives habitually reside in the PRC.

        We believe none of our entities outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. See "Taxation—People's Republic of China Taxation." However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term "de facto management body." As substantially all of our management members are based in China, it remains unclear how the tax residency rule will apply to our case. If the PRC tax authorities determine that we or any of our subsidiaries outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, then we or such subsidiary could be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 25% on its worldwide income, which could materially reduce our net income. In addition, we will also be subject to PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations. Furthermore, if the PRC tax authorities determine that we are a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, gains realized on the sale or other disposition of our ADSs or ordinary shares may be subject to PRC tax, at a rate of 10% in the case of non-PRC enterprises or 20% in the case of non-PRC individuals (in each case, subject to the provisions of any applicable tax treaty), if such gains are deemed to be from PRC sources. It is unclear whether non-PRC shareholders of our company would be able to claim the benefits of any tax treaties between their country of tax residence and the PRC in the event that we are treated as a PRC resident enterprise. Any such tax may reduce the returns on your investment in the ADSs or ordinary shares.

We may not be able to obtain certain benefits under relevant tax treaty on dividends paid by our PRC subsidiary to us through our Hong Kong subsidiary.

        We are a holding company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and as such rely on dividends and other distributions on equity from our PRC subsidiary to satisfy part of our liquidity requirements. Pursuant to the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, a withholding tax rate of 10% currently applies to dividends paid by a PRC "resident enterprise" to a foreign enterprise investor, unless any such foreign investor's jurisdiction of incorporation has a tax treaty with China that provides for preferential tax treatment. Pursuant to the Arrangement between the Mainland China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Tax Evasion on Income, or the Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement, and Circular 81 issued by the SAT, such withholding tax rate may be lowered to 5% if the PRC enterprise is at least 25% held by a Hong Kong enterprise for at least 12 consecutive months prior to distribution of the dividends and is determined by the relevant PRC tax authority to have satisfied other conditions and requirements under the Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement and other applicable PRC laws. Furthermore, under the Administrative

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Measures for Non-Resident Enterprises to Enjoy Treatments under Tax Treaties, which became effective in August 2015, the non-resident enterprises shall determine whether they are qualified to enjoy the preferential tax treatment under the tax treaties and file relevant report and materials with the tax authorities. There are also other conditions for enjoying the reduced withholding tax rate according to other relevant tax rules and regulations. See "Taxation—People's Republic of China Taxation." We cannot assure you that our determination regarding our qualification to enjoy the preferential tax treatment will not be challenged by the relevant PRC tax authority or we will be able to complete the necessary filings with the relevant PRC tax authority and enjoy the preferential withholding tax rate of 5% under the Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement with respect to dividends to be paid by our PRC subsidiary to our Hong Kong subsidiary.

We face uncertainty with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.

        We face uncertainties regarding the reporting on and consequences of previous private equity financing transactions involving the transfer and exchange of shares in our company by non-resident investors.

        In February 2015, the SAT issued the Bulletin on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfers of Assets by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or SAT Bulletin 7, as amended in 2017. Pursuant to this bulletin, an "indirect transfer" of assets, including equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by non-PRC resident enterprises may be re-characterized and treated as a direct transfer of PRC taxable assets, if such arrangement does not have a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of avoiding payment of PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax. According to SAT Bulletin 7, "PRC taxable assets" include assets attributed to an establishment in China, immovable properties located in China, and equity investments in PRC resident enterprises, in respect of which gains from their transfer by a direct holder, being a non-PRC resident enterprise, would be subject to PRC enterprise income taxes. When determining whether there is a "reasonable commercial purpose" of the transaction arrangement, features to be taken into consideration include: whether the main value of the equity interest of the relevant offshore enterprise derives from PRC taxable assets; whether the assets of the relevant offshore enterprise mainly consist of direct or indirect investment in China or if its income mainly derives from China; whether the offshore enterprise and its subsidiaries directly or indirectly holding PRC taxable assets have real commercial nature which is evidenced by their actual function and risk exposure; the duration of existence of the business model and organizational structure; the replicability of the transaction by direct transfer of PRC taxable assets; and the tax situation of such indirect transfer and applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements. In respect of an indirect offshore transfer of assets of a PRC establishment, the resulting gain is to be included with the enterprise income tax filing of the PRC establishment or place of business being transferred, and would consequently be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at a rate of 25%. Where the underlying transfer relates to the immovable properties located in China or to equity investments in a PRC resident enterprise, which is not related to a PRC establishment or place of business of a non-resident enterprise, a PRC enterprise income tax of 10% would apply, subject to available preferential tax treatment under applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements, and the party who is obligated to make the transfer payments has the withholding obligation. SAT Bulletin 7 does not apply to transactions of sale of shares by investors through a public stock exchange where such shares were acquired from a transaction through a public stock exchange.

        There is uncertainty as to the application of SAT Bulletin 7. We face uncertainties as to the reporting and other implications of certain past and future transactions where PRC taxable assets are involved, such as offshore restructuring, sale of the shares in our offshore subsidiaries or investments. Our company may be subject to filing obligations or taxed if our company is transferor in such

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transactions, and may be subject to withholding obligations if our company is transferee in such transactions under SAT Bulletin 7. For transfer of shares in our company by investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises, our PRC subsidiaries may be requested to assist in the filing under SAT Bulletin 7. As a result, we may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with SAT Bulletin 7 or to request the relevant transferors from whom we purchase taxable assets to comply with these circulars, or to establish that our company should not be taxed under these circulars, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The audit report included in this prospectus is prepared by an auditor who is not inspected by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and, as such, our investors are deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

        Our independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included in our prospectus filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, is required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards. Because our auditors are located in the PRC, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditor is not currently inspected by the PCAOB.

        Inspections of other firms that the PCAOB has conducted outside China have identified deficiencies in those firms' audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. This lack of PCAOB inspections in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating our auditor's audits and its quality control procedures. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections.

        The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor's audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to PCAOB inspections. Investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements, which may have a material adverse effect on our ADS price.

Proceedings instituted by the SEC against five PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

        Starting in 2011 the Chinese affiliates of the "big four" accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, were affected by a conflict between U.S. and PRC law. Specifically, for certain U.S.-listed companies operating and audited in mainland China, the SEC and the PCAOB sought to obtain from the Chinese firms access to their audit work papers and related documents. The firms were, however, advised and directed that under PRC law, they could not respond directly to the U.S. regulators on those requests, and that requests by foreign regulators for access to such papers in China had to be channeled through the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC.

        In late 2012, this impasse led the SEC to commence administrative proceedings under Rule 102(e) of its Rules of Practice and also under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 against the Chinese accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm. A first instance trial of the proceedings in July 2013 in the SEC's internal administrative court resulted in an adverse judgment against the firms. The administrative law judge proposed penalties on the firms including a temporary suspension of their right to practice before the SEC, although that proposed penalty did not take effect pending review by the Commissioners of the SEC. On February 6, 2015, before a review by the

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Commissioners had taken place, the firms reached a settlement with the SEC. Under the settlement, the SEC accepts that future requests by the SEC for the production of documents will normally be made to the CSRC. The firms will receive matching Section 106 requests, and are required to abide by a detailed set of procedures with respect to such requests, which in substance require them to facilitate production via the CSRC. If they fail to meet specified criteria, the SEC retains authority to impose a variety of additional remedial measures on the firms depending on the nature of the failure. Remedies for any future noncompliance could include, as appropriate, an automatic six-month bar on a single firm's performance of certain audit work, commencement of a new proceeding against a firm, or in extreme cases the resumption of the current proceeding against all four firms.

        In the event that the SEC restarts the administrative proceedings, depending upon the final outcome, listed companies in the United States with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, including possible delisting. Moreover, any negative news about any such future proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding China-based, U.S.-listed companies and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

        If our independent registered public accounting firm was denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to the delisting of our ADSs from the New York Stock Exchange or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.

Risks Related to Our ADSs and This Offering

There has been no public market for our class A ordinary shares or ADSs prior to this offering, and you may not be able to resell our ADSs at or above the price you paid, or at all.

        Prior to this initial public offering, there has been no public market for our class A ordinary shares or ADSs. We have applied to list our ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange. Our class A ordinary shares will not be listed on any exchange or quoted for trading on any over-the-counter trading system. If an active trading market for our ADSs does not develop after this offering, the market price and liquidity of our ADSs will be materially and adversely affected.

        The initial public offering price for our ADSs will be determined by negotiation between us and the underwriters, which may bear no relationship to their market price after the initial public offering. We cannot assure you that an active trading market for our ADSs will develop or that the market price of our ADSs will not decline below the initial public offering price.

The market price for our ADSs may be volatile.

        The trading prices of our ADSs are likely to be volatile and could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, like the performance and fluctuation in the market prices or the underperformance or deteriorating financial results of other listed internet or other companies based in China that have listed their securities in the United States in recent years. The securities of some of these companies have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings, including, in some cases, substantial price declines in their trading prices. The trading performances of other Chinese companies' securities after their offerings, including internet and e-commerce companies, may affect the attitudes of investors toward Chinese companies listed in the United States, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions

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about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting, corporate structure or other matters of other Chinese companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have conducted any inappropriate activities. In addition, securities markets may from time to time experience significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to our operating performance, such as the large decline in share prices in the United States, China and other jurisdictions in late 2008, early 2009 and the second half of 2011, which may have a material adverse effect on the market price of our ADSs.

        In addition to the above factors, the price and trading volume of our ADSs may be highly volatile due to multiple factors, including the following:

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price for our ADSs and trading volume could decline.

        The trading market for our ADSs will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If research analysts do not establish and maintain adequate research coverage or if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our ADSs or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price for our ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which, in turn, could cause the market price or trading volume for our ADSs to decline.

Because we have not yet adopted a dividend policy with respect to future dividends after this offering, you must rely on price appreciation of our ADSs for return on your investment.

        We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings after this offering to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we have not yet adopted

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a dividend policy with respect to future dividends. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in our ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.

        Our board of directors has discretion as to whether to distribute dividends, subject to certain restrictions under Cayman Islands law, namely that our company may only pay dividends either out of profits or share premium account, and provided always that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in our company being unable to pay its debts at they fall due in the ordinary course of business. In addition, our shareholders may by ordinary resolution declare a dividend, but no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by our board of directors. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on, among other things, our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiary, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in our ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of our ADSs. There is no guarantee that our ADSs will appreciate in value after this offering or even maintain the price at which you purchased the ADSs. You may not realize a return on your investment in our ADSs and you may even lose your entire investment in our ADSs.

The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement, and you may not be able to exercise your right to direct the voting of the underlying class A ordinary shares which are represented by your ADSs.

        As a holder of our ADSs, you will not have any direct right to attend general meetings of our shareholders or to cast any votes at such meetings. You will only be able to exercise the voting rights which attach to the underlying class A ordinary shares which are represented by your ADSs indirectly by giving voting instructions to the depositary in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under the deposit agreement, you may vote only by giving voting instructions to the depositary, as the holder of the underlying class A ordinary shares which are represented by your ADSs. Upon receipt of your voting instructions, if we asked the depositary to solicit your instructions, the depositary will endeavor to vote the underlying class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs in accordance with your instructions. If we do not instruct the depositary to solicit, you can still send voting instructions to the depositary and the depositary may, but it is not required, to endeavor to carry out those instructions. You will not be able to directly exercise any right to vote with respect to the underlying class A ordinary shares unless you withdraw the shares and become the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date for the general meeting. If we ask the depositary to solicit your voting instructions in connection with a shareholders' meeting, we have agreed to give the depositary notice of that meeting and details of the matters to be voted upon at least 30 days prior to the meeting. However, no disclaimer of liability under the US federal securities laws is intended by any provision of the deposit agreement. Under our post-offering amended and restated memorandum and articles of association that will become effective immediately prior to the completion of this offering, the minimum notice period required to be given by our company to our registered shareholders for convening a general meeting is ten (10) calendar days. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient advance notice to enable you to withdraw the underlying class A ordinary shares which are represented by your ADSs and become the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date for the general meeting to allow you to attend the general meeting or to vote directly with respect to any specific matter or resolution which is to be considered and voted upon at the general meeting. In addition, under our post-offering amended and restated memorandum and articles of association that will become effective immediately prior to completion of this offering, for the purposes of determining those shareholders who are entitled to attend and vote at any general meeting, our directors may close our register of members and/or fix in advance a record date for such meeting, and such closure of our register of members or the setting of such a record date may prevent you from withdrawing the underlying class A ordinary shares which are represented by your ADSs and becoming

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the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date, so that you would not be able to attend the general meeting or to vote directly. Where any matter is to be put to a vote at a general meeting, the depositary will, if we request, and subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, endeavor to notify you of the upcoming vote and to deliver our voting materials to you. We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote the underlying class A ordinary shares which are represented by your ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out your voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to direct the voting of the underlying class A ordinary shares which are represented by your ADSs, and you may have no legal remedy if the underlying class A ordinary shares are not voted as you requested.

Except in limited circumstances, the depositary for our ADSs will give us a discretionary proxy to vote our class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs if you do not instruct the depositary how to vote such shares, which could adversely affect your interests.

        Under the deposit agreement for our ADSs, the depositary will give us (or our nominee) a discretionary proxy to vote the class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs at shareholders' meetings if you do not give voting instructions to the depositary as to how to vote the class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs at any particular shareholders' meeting, unless:

        The effect of this discretionary proxy is that, if you fail to give voting instructions to the depositary as to how to vote the class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs at any particular shareholders' meeting, you cannot prevent such class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs from being voted at that meeting, absent the situations described above, and it may make it more difficult for shareholders to influence our management. Holders of our ordinary shares are not subject to this discretionary proxy.

The deposit agreement may be amended or terminated without your consent.

        We may amend the deposit agreement without your consent. If you continue to hold your ADSs after an amendment to the deposit agreement, you agree to be bound by the deposit agreement as amended. See "Description of American Depositary Shares" for more information.

Your right to participate in any future rights offerings may be limited, which may cause dilution to your holdings.

        We may from time to time distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. However, we cannot make such rights available to you in the United States unless we register both the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not make rights available to you unless both the rights and the underlying securities to be distributed to ADS holders are either registered under the Securities Act or exempt from registration under the Securities Act. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any

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such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective and we may not be able to establish a necessary exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, you may be unable to participate in our rights offerings in the future and may experience dilution in your holdings.

You may not receive dividends or other distributions on our ordinary shares and you may not receive any value for them, if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to you.

        The depositary has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our class A ordinary shares or other deposited securities underlying our ADSs, after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of class A ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, it would be unlawful to make a distribution to a holder of ADSs if it consists of securities that require registration under the Securities Act but that are not properly registered or distributed under an applicable exemption from registration. The depositary may also determine that it is not feasible to distribute certain property. Additionally, the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may determine not to distribute such property. We have no obligation to register under U.S. securities laws any ADSs, ordinary shares, rights or other securities received through such distributions. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, ordinary shares, rights or anything else to holders of ADSs. This means that you may not receive distributions we make on our ordinary shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to you. These restrictions may cause a material decline in the value of our ADSs.

You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.

        Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deems it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

        We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands with limited liability. We conduct substantially all of our operations in China and substantially all of our assets are located in China. In addition, a majority of our directors and executive officers reside within China, and most of the assets of these persons are located within China. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to effect service of process within the United States upon these individuals, or to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that you believe your rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of the PRC may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers. For more information regarding the relevant laws of the Cayman Islands and China, see "Enforceability of Civil Liabilities."

ADSs holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

        The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under the U.S. federal securities laws.

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        If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable based on the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with the applicable state and federal law. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver in connection with claims arising under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by the United States Supreme Court. However, we believe that a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable, including under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement, by a federal or state court in the City of New York, which has non-exclusive jurisdiction over matters arising under the deposit agreement. In determining whether to enforce a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision, courts will generally consider whether a party knowingly, intelligently and voluntarily waived the right to a jury trial. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. It is advisable that you consult legal counsel regarding the jury waiver provision before entering into the deposit agreement.

        If you or any other holders or beneficial owners of ADSs bring a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, you or such other holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have had, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

        Nevertheless, if this jury trial waiver provision is not permitted by applicable law, an action could proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or ADSs serves as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs or by us or the depositary of compliance with any substantive provision of the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

        We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands with limited liability. Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Law (2018 Revision) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

        Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors will have discretion under the post-offering memorandum and articles of association that will become effective immediately prior to completion of this offering, to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not

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obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder resolution or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

        As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States. For a discussion of significant differences between the provisions of the Companies Law (2018 Revision) of the Cayman Islands and the laws applicable to companies incorporated in the United States and their shareholders, see "Description of Share Capital—Differences in Corporate Law."

The approval of the CSRC may be required in connection with this offering under PRC law.

        The M&A Rules requires an overseas special purpose vehicle formed for listing purposes through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies and controlled by PRC companies or individuals to obtain the approval of the CSRC, prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle's securities on an overseas stock exchange. The interpretation and application of the regulations remain unclear, and this offering may ultimately require approval from the CSRC. If CSRC approval is required, it is uncertain whether it would be possible for us to obtain the approval and any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining CSRC approval for this offering would subject us to sanctions imposed by the CSRC and other PRC regulatory agencies.

        Our PRC counsel, Commerce and Finance Law Offices, has advised us based on their understanding of the current PRC law, rules and regulations that the CSRC's approval is not required for the listing and trading of our ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange in the context of this offering, given that:

        However, our PRC legal counsel has further advised us that there remains some uncertainty as to how the M&A Rules will be interpreted or implemented in the context of an overseas offering and its opinions summarized above are subject to any new laws, regulations and rules or detailed implementations and interpretations in any form relating to the M&A Rules. We cannot assure you that relevant PRC governmental agencies, including the CSRC, would reach the same conclusion as we do. If it is determined that CSRC approval is required for this offering, we may face sanctions by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies for failure to seek CSRC approval for this offering. These sanctions may include fines and penalties on our operations in the PRC, limitations on our operating privileges in the PRC, delays in or restrictions on the repatriation of the proceeds from this offering into the PRC, restrictions on or prohibition of the payments or remittance of dividends by our China subsidiary, or other actions that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, reputation and prospects, as well as the trading price of our ADSs. The CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies may also take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt this offering before the settlement and delivery of the ADSs that we are offering. Consequently, if you engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to the settlement and delivery of the ADSs we are offering, you would be doing so at the risk that the settlement and delivery may not occur.

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You must rely on the judgment of our management as to the use of the net proceeds from this offering, and such use may not produce income or increase our ADS price.

        Our management will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds received by us. You will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether proceeds are being used appropriately. The net proceeds may be used for corporate purposes that do not improve our efforts to achieve or maintain profitability or increase our ADS price. The net proceeds from this offering may be placed in investments that do not produce income or that lose value.

Our proposed dual class share structure will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

        Immediately prior to the completion of this offering, our ordinary shares will consist of class A ordinary shares and class B ordinary shares. Based on our post-offering dual-class share structure, holders of class A ordinary shares will be entitled to one vote per share in respect of matters requiring the votes of shareholders, while holders of class B ordinary shares will be entitled to twenty votes per share. We will issue class A ordinary shares represented by our ADSs in this offering. Immediately prior to the completion of this offering, (i) all shares beneficially owned by Mr. Zhou Hongyi will be automatically re-designated as class B ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis, and (ii) all preferred shares held by all of our existing shareholders will be automatically converted into and re-designated as class A ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis. Each class B ordinary share is convertible into one class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof, while class A ordinary shares are not convertible into class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. Due to the disparate voting powers associated with our two classes of ordinary shares, we anticipate that the holder of our class B ordinary shares, Mr. Zhou Hongyi, will beneficially own                % of the aggregate voting power of our company immediately after the completion of this offering. As a result, he will have considerable influence over matters such as electing directors and approving material mergers, acquisitions or other business combination transactions. Furthermore, given our post-offering dual-class shares structure, Mr. Zhou will have the ability to control the outcome of all corporate governance matters so long as he holds at least 4.8% of our total issued and outstanding share capital in class B ordinary shares. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could also discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transactions, which could have the effect of depriving the holders of our class A ordinary shares and our ADSs of the opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over the prevailing market price.

        Upon the completion of this offering, we will be a "controlled company" as defined under the New York Stock Exchange rules because Mr. Hongyi Zhou, the chairman of our board of directors will own more than 50% of our total voting power. For so long as we remain a controlled company under that definition, we are permitted to elect to rely, and may rely, on certain exemptions from corporate governance rules, including an exemption from the rule that a majority of our board of directors must be independent directors or that we have to establish a nominating committee and a compensation committee composed entirely of independent directors. As a result, you will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to these corporate governance requirements. Currently, we do not plan to utilize the "controlled company" exemptions with respect to our corporate governance practice after we complete this offering.

The dual class structure of our ordinary shares may adversely affect the trading market for our ADSs.

        S&P Dow Jones and FTSE Russell have recently announced changes to their eligibility criteria for inclusion of shares of public companies on certain indices, including the S&P 500, to exclude companies with multiple classes of shares and companies whose public shareholders hold no more than 5% of

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total voting power from being added to such indices. In addition, several shareholder advisory firms have announced their opposition to the use of multiple class structures. As a result, the dual class structure of our ordinary shares may prevent the inclusion of our ADSs, each representing                of our class A ordinary shares, in such indices and may cause shareholder advisory firms to publish negative commentary about our corporate governance practices or otherwise seek to cause us to change our capital structure. Any such exclusion from indices could result in a less active trading market for our ADSs. Any actions or publications by shareholder advisory firms critical of our corporate governance practices or capital structure could also adversely affect the value of our ADSs.

The post-offering memorandum and articles of association that we will adopt and will become effective immediately prior to the completion of this offering contain anti-takeover provisions that could discourage a third party from acquiring us and adversely affect the rights of holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs.

        We have adopted the second amended and restated memorandum and articles of association that will become effective immediately prior to the completion of this offering. The post-offering memorandum and articles of association contains certain provisions that could limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company, including a provision that grants authority to our board of directors to issue from time to time one or more series of preferred shares without action by our shareholders and to determine, with respect to any series of preferred shares, the terms and rights of that series. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders and ADS holders of the opportunity to sell their shares or ADSs at a premium over the prevailing market price by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transactions.

Certain existing shareholders have substantial influence over our company and their interests may not be aligned with the interests of our other shareholders.

        Upon the completion of this offering, our directors and officers will collectively own an aggregate of            % of the total voting power of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares. As a result, they have substantial influence over our business, including significant corporate actions such as mergers, consolidations, sales of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions.

        They may take actions that are not in the best interest of us or our other shareholders. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and may reduce the price of the ADSs. These actions may be taken even if they are opposed by our other shareholders, including those who purchase ADSs in this offering. In addition, the significant concentration of share ownership may adversely affect the trading price of the ADSs due to investors' perception that conflicts of interest may exist or arise. For more information regarding our principal shareholders and their affiliated entities, see "Principal Shareholders."

We have granted, and may continue to grant, share incentive awards, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.

        We first adopted our Share Incentive Plan, in May 2018 for purposes of granting share-based compensation awards to employees, directors and consultants to incentivize their performance and align their interests with ours. The Share Incentive Plan was later amended and restated several times. We account for compensation costs for all share options using a fair-value based method and recognize expenses in our combined and consolidated statements of comprehensive income in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Under the Share Incentive Plan, we are authorized to grant options to purchase ordinary shares of our company. The maximum number of ordinary shares which may be issued pursuant to all awards under the Share Incentive Plan is 25,336,096 and may increase annually by an amount up to 1% of the total number of ordinary shares then issued and outstanding, starting from the completion of this

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offering. As of the date of this prospectus, options to purchase 24,599,244 ordinary shares have been granted and are outstanding under the Share Incentive Plan. We believe the granting of share incentive awards is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain employees, and we will continue to grant share incentive awards to employees in the future. As a result, our expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of our ADSs could adversely affect their market price.

        Sales of substantial amounts of our ADSs in the public market after the completion of this offering, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. The ADSs sold in this offering will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act, and shares held by our existing shareholders may also be sold in the public market in the future subject to the restrictions in Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act and the applicable lock-up agreements. In particular, approximately 75% of our outstanding shares are held by venture capital and/or private equity fund investors that are not our affiliates. These shareholders may have varying investment horizons, cash needs and repayment obligations under certain financing arrangements, including one entered into by certain beneficial owners of our shares, who were originally organized and capitalized for the purpose of the privatization transaction of Qihoo 360 Technology Co. Ltd., and may sell their shares in reliance on Rule 144 without volume limitation following the expiration of the 180-day lock-up period described below.

        There will be        ADSs (representing        class A ordinary shares) outstanding immediately after this offering. In connection with this offering, we, our directors executive officers, existing shareholders and certain option holders have agreed, subject to certain exceptions, not to sell any ordinary shares or ADSs for 180 days after the date of this prospectus without the prior written consent of the representatives of the underwriters of this offering. However, the representatives of the underwriters may release these securities from these restrictions at any time at their discretion. To the extent shares are released before the expiration of the lock-up period and sold into the market, the market price of our ADSs could decline. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of our ADSs. See "Underwriting" and "Shares Eligible for Future Sale" for a more detailed description of the restrictions on selling our securities after this offering.

        After completion of this offering, certain holders of our ordinary shares may cause us to register under the Securities Act the sale of their shares, subject to the 180-day lock-up period in connection with this offering. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in ADSs representing these shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act immediately upon the effectiveness of the registration. Sales of these registered shares in the form of ADSs in the public market could cause the price of our ADSs to decline.

We are an emerging growth company and may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements.

        We are an "emerging growth company," as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, most significantly, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 for so long as we are an emerging growth company. As a result, if we elect not to comply with such auditor attestation requirements, our investors may not have access to certain information they may deem important.

        The JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company does not need to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards until such date that a private company is otherwise

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required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards. We do not plan to "opt out" of such exemptions afforded to an emerging growth company. As a result of this election, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective data.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.

        Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

        We will be required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our results on a quarterly basis as press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the New York Stock Exchange. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

As an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from the New York Stock Exchange corporate governance listing standards; these practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with such corporate governance listing standards.

        As a Cayman Islands exempted company listed on the New York Stock Exchange, we are subject to the New York Stock Exchange corporate governance listing standards. However, the New York Stock Exchange rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from the New York Stock Exchange corporate governance listing standards. Currently, we do not plan to rely on home country practice with respect to our corporate governance after we complete this offering. However, if we choose to follow home country practice in the future, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they would otherwise enjoy under the NYSE corporate governance listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

There can be no assurance that we will not be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for United States federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, which could subject United States investors in our ADSs or ordinary shares to significant adverse United States income tax consequences.

        We will be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for United States federal income tax purposes for any taxable year if either (a) 75% or more of our gross income for such year consists of certain types of "passive" income or (b) 50% or more of the value of our assets (determined on the basis of a quarterly average) during such year produce or are held for the production of passive

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income (the "asset test"). Although the law in this regard is unclear, we intend to treat our VIEs (including their respective subsidiaries, if any) as being owned by us for United States federal income tax purposes, not only because we exercise effective control over the operation of such entities but also because we are entitled to substantially all of their economic benefits, and, as a result, we consolidate their results of operations in our combined and consolidated financial statements. Assuming that we are the owner of our VIEs (including their respective subsidiaries, if any) for United States federal income tax purposes, and based upon our current and expected income and assets, including goodwill and other unbooked intangibles not reflected on our balance sheet (taking into account the expected proceeds from this offering) and projections as to the market price of our ADSs following the offering, we do not presently expect to be a PFIC for the current taxable year or the foreseeable future.

        While we do not expect to become a PFIC, because the value of our assets for purposes of the asset test may be determined by reference to the market price of our ADSs, fluctuations in the market price of our ADSs may cause us to become a PFIC for the current or subsequent taxable years. The determination of whether we will be or become a PFIC will also depend, in part, on the composition and classification of our income and assets. Because there are uncertainties in the application of the relevant rules, it is possible that the IRS may challenge our classification of certain income and assets as non-passive which may result in our being or becoming a PFIC in the current or subsequent years. In addition, the composition of our income and assets will also be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our liquid assets and the cash raised in this offering. If we determine not to deploy significant amounts of cash for active purposes or if it were determined that we do not own the stock of our VIEs for United States federal income tax purposes, our risk of being a PFIC may substantially increase. Because there are uncertainties in the application of the relevant rules and PFIC status is a factual determination made annually after the close of each taxable year, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for the current taxable year or any future taxable year.

        If we are a PFIC in any taxable year, a U.S. Holder (as defined in "Taxation—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—General") may incur significantly increased United States income tax on gain recognized on the sale or other disposition of the ADSs or ordinary shares and on the receipt of distributions on the ADSs or ordinary shares to the extent such gain or distribution is treated as an "excess distribution" under the United States federal income tax rules, and such holder may be subject to burdensome reporting requirements. Further, if we are a PFIC for any year during which a U.S. Holder holds our ADSs or ordinary shares, we generally will continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which such U.S. Holder holds our ADSs or ordinary shares. For more information see "Taxation—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—Passive foreign investment company considerations."

We will incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, particularly after we cease to qualify as an "emerging growth company."

        Upon the completion of this offering, we will be a public company and expect to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we would not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. As a company with less than US$1.07 billion in revenues for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an "emerging growth company" pursuant to the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in the assessment of the emerging growth company's internal control over financial reporting and permission to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We do not plan to "opt out" of such exemptions afforded to an emerging growth company.

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        We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. After we are no longer an "emerging growth company," we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. For example, as a result of becoming a public company, we will need to increase the number of independent directors and adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. In addition, we will incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

        In the past, shareholders of a public company often brought securities class action suits against the company following periods of instability in the market price of that company's securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management's attention and other resources from our business and operations, which could harm our results of operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND INDUSTRY DATA

        This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in the sections entitled "Prospectus Summary," "Risk Factors," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Business." Known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including those listed under "Risk Factors," may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

        You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as "may," "will," "expect," "anticipate," "aim," "estimate," "intend," "plan," "believe," "is/are likely to," "potential," "continue" or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:

        These forward-looking statements involve various risks and uncertainties. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect. Our actual results could be materially different from our expectations. Important risks and factors that could cause our actual results to be materially different from our expectations are generally set forth in "Prospectus Summary—Market Opportunity," "Risk Factors," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," "Business," "Regulations" and other sections in this prospectus. You should read thoroughly this prospectus and the documents that we refer to with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

        This prospectus contains certain data and information that we obtained from various government and private publications, including certain statistical data and estimates from an industry report which we commissioned Oliver Wyman to prepare. This information involves a number of assumptions, estimates and limitations. These industry publications, surveys and forecasts generally indicate that their information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. Nothing in such data should be construed as advice. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the data contained in these industry publications and reports. The online consumer finance market in China may not grow at the rate projected by market data, or at all. Failure to grow at the projected rate may have a material and adverse effect on our business and the market price of our ADSs. In addition, the rapidly evolving nature of data aggregation and credit analytics technology, and constantly moving overall credit cycle in China may result in significant uncertainties for any projections or estimates relating to the growth prospects or future condition of the online consumer finance industry. Furthermore, if any one or more

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of the assumptions underlying the market data are later found to be incorrect, actual results may differ from the projections based on these assumptions. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

        The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this prospectus. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this prospectus and the documents that we refer to in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

        We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately US$            , or approximately US$            if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and the estimated offering expenses payable by us. These estimates are based upon an assumed initial public offering price of US$            per ADS, which is the midpoint of the price range shown on the front page of this prospectus. A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of US$            per ADS would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by US$            , assuming the number of ADSs offered by us, as set forth on the front cover of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated expenses payable by us.

        The primary purposes of this offering are to create a public market for our shares for the benefit of all shareholders, retain talented employees by providing them with equity incentives, and obtain additional capital. We plan to use the net proceeds of this offering primarily for general corporate purposes. According to our current plan, 40% of such net proceeds will be used in brand promotions to facilitate our long-term brand building and marketing efforts, 30% will be used in research and development as well as cultivating talents of our team, and the remaining 30% will be used in other general corporate purposes such as administrative expenses and potential acquisitions and strategic investments, although we have not identified any near-term investment or acquisition targets. The amounts and timing of any expenditures will vary depending on the amount of cash generated by our operations, and the rate of growth, if any, of our business.

        Our management, however, will have significant flexibility and discretion to apply the net proceeds of this offering. If an unforeseen event occurs or business conditions change, we may use the proceeds of this offering differently than as described in this prospectus. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our ADSs and This Offering—You must rely on the judgment of our management as to the use of the net proceeds from this offering, and such use may not produce income or increase our ADS price."

        Pending any use described above, we plan to invest the net proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing, debt instruments or demand deposits.

        In using the proceeds of this offering, we are permitted under PRC laws and regulations as an offshore holding company to provide funding to our WFOE only through loans or capital contributions and to our VIE only through loans, subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration and approval requirements. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain these government registrations or approvals on a timely basis, if at all. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans to or make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiary, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business."

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DIVIDEND POLICY

        Our board of directors has discretion on whether to distribute dividends, subject to the requirements of Cayman Islands law that our company may only pay dividends out of profits or share premium, and provided always that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in our company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. In addition, our shareholders may by ordinary resolution declare a dividend, but no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by our board of directors. Even if we decide to pay dividends, the form, frequency and amount will depend upon our future operations and earnings, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that the board of directors may deem relevant.

        We have not yet adopted a dividend policy with respect to future dividends on our class A ordinary shares. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business.

        We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We may rely on dividends from our subsidiaries in China for our cash requirements, including any payment of dividends to our shareholders. PRC regulations may restrict the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us. See "Regulations—Regulations on Foreign Exchange—Regulations on dividend distribution."

        If we pay any dividends on our class A ordinary shares, we will pay those dividends which are payable in respect of the class A ordinary shares underlying our ADSs to the depositary, as the registered holder of such class A ordinary shares, and the depositary then will pay such amounts to our ADS holders in proportion to class A ordinary shares underlying the ADSs held by such ADS holders, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, including the fees and expenses payable thereunder. See "Description of American Depositary Shares." Cash dividends on our class A ordinary shares, if any, will be paid in U.S. dollars.

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CAPITALIZATION

        The following table sets forth our capitalization as of September 30, 2018:

        You should read this table together with our combined and consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and the information under "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."

 
  As of September 30, 2018    
 
 
  Actual   Pro Forma   Pro Forma As
Adjusted(1)
 
 
  RMB
  US$
  RMB
  US$
  RMB
  US$
 
 
  (in thousands)
   
   
 

Mezzanine equity:

                                     

Series A convertible redeemable preferred shares

    531,106     77,331                      

Series A+ convertible redeemable preferred shares

    2,566,627     373,708                      

Series B convertible redeemable preferred shares

    1,393,812     202,943                      

Total mezzanine equity

    4,491,545     653,982                      

Shareholders' equity (deficit):

                                     

Ordinary shares (US$0.00001 par value, 5,000,000,000 ordinary shares authorized, 198,347,168 shares issued and outstanding on an actual basis; 241,632,121 class A ordinary shares, 39,820,586 class B ordinary shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma basis;            shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma as adjust basis.)

    14     2     20     3              

Additional paid-in capital(2)

            4,491,539     653,981              

Other comprehensive income

    3,741     545     3,741     545              

Accumulated deficit

    (2,425,257 )   (353,124 )   (2,425,257 )   (353,124 )            

Total mezzanine equity and shareholders' equity (deficit)(2)

    2,070,043     301,405     2,070,043     301,405              

(1)
The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only. Our additional paid-in capital, total shareholders' equity (deficit) and total capitalization following the completion of this offering are subject to adjustment based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

(2)
A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of US$            per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated range of the initial public offering price shown on the front cover of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) each of additional paid-in capital, total shareholders' equity/(deficit), and total capitalization by US$             million.

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DILUTION

        If you invest in our ADSs, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per ADS and our net tangible book value per ADS after this offering. Dilution results from the fact that the initial public offering price per ordinary share is substantially in excess of the book value per ordinary share attributable to the existing shareholders for our presently outstanding ordinary shares.

        Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2018 was approximately US$211 million, or US$1.06 per ordinary share on an as-converted basis as of that date and US$            per ADS. Net tangible book value represents the amount of our total combined and consolidated tangible assets, less the amount of our total combined and consolidated liabilities. Dilution is determined by subtracting net tangible book value per ordinary share, after giving effect to the additional proceeds we will receive from this offering, from the assumed initial public offering price of US$            per ordinary share, which is the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range set forth on the front cover of this prospectus adjusted to reflect the ADS-to-ordinary share ratio, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

        Without taking into account any other changes in net tangible book value after September 30, 2018, other than to give effect to our sale of the ADSs offered in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price of US$            per ADS, which is the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range, after deduction of the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2018 would have been US$            , or US$            per ordinary share and US$            per ADS. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of US$            per ordinary share and US$             per ADS to the existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of US$            per ordinary share and US$            per ADS to investors purchasing ADSs in this offering. The following table illustrates such dilution:

 
  Per Ordinary share   Per ADS  

Assumed initial public offering price

  US$            US$           

Net tangible book value as of September 30, 2018

  US$     US$    

Pro forma net tangible book value after giving effect to the conversion of our preferred shares*

  US$     US$    

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after giving effect to the conversion of our preferred shares and this offering*

  US$     US$    

Amount of dilution in net tangible book value to new investors in this offering*

  US$     US$    

    Note:

*
Including 24,599,244 class A ordinary shares issuable upon exercisise of outstanding share options.

        A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of US$            per ADS would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after giving effect to this offering by US$            , the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share and per ADS after giving effect to this offering by US$            per ordinary share and US$            per ADS and the dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per ordinary share and per ADS to new investors in this offering by US$            per ordinary share and US$            per ADS, assuming no change to the number of ADSs offered by us as set forth on the front cover of this prospectus, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

        The following table summarizes, on a pro forma as adjusted basis as of September 30, 2018, the differences between existing shareholders and the new investors with respect to the number of ordinary

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shares (in the form of ADSs or shares) purchased from us, the total consideration paid and the average price per ordinary share and per ADS paid before deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The total number of ordinary shares does not include class A ordinary shares underlying the ADSs issuable upon the exercise of the over-allotment option granted to the underwriters.

 
  Ordinary Shares
Purchased
   
   
   
   
 
 
  Total Consideration   Average
Price Per
Ordinary
share
   
 
 
  Average
Price Per
ADS
 
 
  Number   Percent   Amount   Percent  

Existing shareholders*

                            US$                % US$            US$           

New investors

              US$         % US$     US$    

Total

              US$       100.0 %            

    Note:

*
Including 24,599,244 class A ordinary shares issuable upon exercises of outstanding share options.

        The pro forma as adjusted information discussed above is illustrative only. Our net tangible book value following the completion of this offering is subject to adjustment based on the actual initial public offering price of our ADSs and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

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EXCHANGE RATE INFORMATION

        Our reporting currency is the Renminbi because our business is mainly conducted in China and all of our revenues are denominated in Renminbi. This prospectus contains translations of Renminbi amounts into U.S. dollars at specific rates solely for the convenience of the reader. The conversion of Renminbi into U.S. dollars in this prospectus is based on the exchange rate set forth in the H.10 Statistical release of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to Renminbi in this prospectus were made at a rate of RMB6.8680 to US$1.00, the exchange rate in effect as of September 28, 2018. We make no representation that any Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, the rates stated below, or at all. The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves in part through direct regulation of the conversion of Renminbi into foreign currency and through restrictions on foreign trade. On November 2, 2018, the exchange rate was RMB6.8894 to US$1.00.

        The following table sets forth information concerning exchange rates between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar for the periods indicated. These rates are provided solely for your convenience and are not necessarily the exchange rates that we used in this prospectus or will use in the preparation of our periodic reports or any other information to be provided to you.

 
  Exchange Rate  
Period
  Period
End
  Average(1)   Low   High  
 
  (RMB per US$1.00)
 

2013

    6.0537     6.1412     6.2438     6.0537  

2014

    6.2046     6.1704     6.2591     6.0402  

2015

    6.4778     6.2869     6.4896     6.1870  

2016

    6.9430     6.6549     6.9580     6.4480  

2017

    6.5063     6.7350     6.9575     6.4773  

2018

                         

May

    6.4096     6.3701     6.4175     6.3325  

June

    6.6171     6.4651     6.6235     6.3850  

July

    6.8038     6.7164     6.8102     6.6123  

August

    6.8300     6.8453     6.9330     6.8018  

September 

    6.8680     6.8551     6.8880     6.8270  

October

    6.9737     6.9191     6.9737     6.8680  

November (through November 2)

    6.8894     6.9050     6.9205     6.8894  

Source: Federal Reserve Statistical Release

(1)
Annual averages are calculated by using the average of the exchange rates on the last day of each month during the relevant year. Monthly averages are calculated by using the average of the daily rates during the relevant month.

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ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

        We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands to take advantage of certain benefits associated with being a Cayman Islands exempted company, such as:

        However, certain disadvantages accompany incorporation in the Cayman Islands. These disadvantages include but are not limited to:

        Our constituent documents do not contain provisions requiring that disputes, including those arising under the securities laws of the United States, between us, our officers, directors and shareholders, be arbitrated.

        Substantially all of our operations are conducted in China, and substantially all of our assets are located in China. A majority of our directors and executive officers are nationals or residents of jurisdictions other than the United States and most of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for a shareholder to effect service of process within the United States upon these individuals, or to bring an action against us or these individuals in the United States, or to enforce against us or them judgments obtained in United States courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

        We have appointed Cogency Global Inc., located at 10 E. 40th Street, 10th Floor, New York, NY, 10016, as our agent upon whom process may be served in any action brought against us under the securities laws of the United States.

        Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP, our counsel as to Cayman Islands law, has advised us that there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the Cayman Islands would (i) recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained against us or our directors or officers that are predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or the securities laws of any state in the United States, or (ii) entertain original actions brought in the Cayman Islands against us or our directors or officers that are predicated upon the federal securities laws of the United States or the securities laws of any state in the United States.

        Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP has informed us that although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the federal or state courts of the United States (and the Cayman Islands are not a party to any treaties for the reciprocal enforcement or recognition of such judgments), the courts of the Cayman Islands will, at common law, recognize and enforce a foreign money judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without any re-examination of the merits of the underlying dispute based on the principle that a judgment of a competent foreign court imposes upon the judgment debtor an obligation to pay the liquidated sum for which such judgment has been given, provided such judgment (i) is final and conclusive, (ii) is not in

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respect of taxes, a fine or a penalty; and (iii) was not obtained in a manner and is not of a kind the enforcement of which is contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands. However, the Cayman Islands courts are unlikely to enforce a judgment obtained from the U.S. courts under civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities law if such judgment is determined by the courts of the Cayman Islands to give rise to obligations to make payments that are penal or punitive in nature. A Cayman Islands court may stay enforcement proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere.

        Commerce & Finance Law Offices, our counsel as to PRC law, has advised us that there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of China would:

        Commerce & Finance Law Offices has further advised us that the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are provided for under the PRC Civil Procedures Law. PRC courts may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of the PRC Civil Procedures Law based either on treaties between China and the country where the judgment is made, or on principles of reciprocity between jurisdictions if they decide that the judgment does not violate the basic principles of PRC law or national sovereignty, security or public interest. China does not have any treaties or other form of reciprocity with the United States or the Cayman Islands that provide for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. As a result, it is uncertain whether and on what basis a PRC court would enforce a judgment rendered by a court in the United States or in the Cayman Islands. Under the PRC Civil Procedures Law, foreign shareholders may originate actions based on PRC law against a company in China for disputes if they can establish sufficient nexus to the PRC for a PRC court to have jurisdiction, and meet other procedural requirements, including, among others, the plaintiff must have a direct interest in the case, and there must be a concrete claim, a factual basis and a cause for the suit.

        It will be, however, difficult for U.S. shareholders to originate actions against us in the PRC in accordance with PRC laws because we are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, and it will be difficult for U.S. shareholders, by virtue only of holding our ADSs or class A ordinary shares, to establish a connection to the PRC for a PRC court to have jurisdiction as required under the PRC Civil Procedures Law.

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CORPORATE HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

        We started our operation in July 2016, when Beijing Qibutianxia incorporated Shanghai Qiyu. In March 2017, Fuzhou Microcredit was founded and obtained the license to conduct online microcredit lending business. In June 2018, Fuzhou 360 Financing Guarantee Co., Ltd., or Fuzhou Financing Guarantee, was founded and obtained the license to provide financing guarantee services.

        In April 2018, 360 Finance, Inc. was incorporated in the Cayman Islands as an offshore holding company to facilitate our financing and offshore listing. In May 2018, all shareholders of Beijing Qibutianxia adopted a unanimous resolution to reorganize for offshore listing and determine to spin off the online consumer finance service, microcredit lending as well as related financing guarantee businesses, which were hosted in Shanghai Qiyu, Fuzhou Microcredit and Fuzhou Financing Guarantee.

        During the reorganization process we issued ordinary shares and preferred shares to the beneficial owners of Beijing Qibutianxia in exchange for the contribution of Shanghai Qiyu, Fuzhou Microcredit and Fuzhou Financing Guarantee. We in addition have incorporated a wholly-owned subsidiary, HK Qirui International Technology Company Limited, in Hong Kong. It has further incorporated a wholly-owned subsidiary in China, Shanghai Qiyue Information Technology Co., Ltd., which is referred to as our WFOE in this prospectus. Our WFOE has entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Shanghai Qiyu, Fuzhou Microcredit, and Fuzhou Financing Guarantee, which three entities we collectively refer to as our VIEs in this prospectus, and their respective record shareholders. These contractual arrangements enable us to exercise effective control over our VIEs; receive substantially all of the economic benefits of our VIEs; and have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in and assets of them when and to the extent permitted by PRC law. For risks and uncertainties associated with this structure, please see "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure."

        As a result of our direct ownership in our WFOE and the contractual arrangements with our VIEs, we will be regarded as the primary beneficiary of our VIEs, and may treat them as our consolidated affiliated entities under U.S. GAAP. Accordingly, we will be able to consolidate the financial results of our VIEs in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

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        The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure, including our subsidiaries and our VIEs:

GRAPHIC


(1)
Each of Shanghai Qiyu and Fuzhou Microcredit is wholly owned by Beijing Qibutianxia, whose shareholders are beneficial owners of the shares of our company. Fuzhou Financing Guarantee is wholly owned by Beijing Zhongxin Baoxin Technology Co., Ltd., which is in turn wholly owned by Beijing Qibutianxia.

        The chart below sets forth the beneficial ownership structure of 360 Finance, Inc. immediately after this offering, with voting power percentages shown in brackets next to each beneficial ownership percentages, assuming that the underwriters will not exercise their over-allotment option:

GRAPHIC


*
"Principal shareholders—Note (1)" for further information regarding the beneficial ownership and voting power.

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Contractual Arrangements with our VIEs and Their Shareholder

Agreements that provide us with effective control over our VIEs

        Powers of Attorney.    Pursuant to the powers of attorney entered into among our WFOE, Shanghai Qiyu and Beijing Qibutianxia, Beijing Qibutianxia would irrevocably authorize our WFOE or any person designated by our WFOE to act as its attorney-in-fact to exercise all of its rights as a shareholder of Shanghai Qiyu, including, but not limited to, the right to convene and attend shareholders' meetings, vote on any resolution that requires a shareholder vote, such as the appointment and removal of directors, supervisors and officers, as well as the sale, transfer and disposal of all or part of the equity interests owned by Beijing Qibutianxia in Shanghai Qiyu. The power of attorney will remain effective for the duration of the existence of Beijing Qibutianxia.

        Beijing Qibutianxia has executed a power of attorney regarding exercise all of its rights as the sole record shareholder of Fuzhou Microcredit, and Beijing Zhongxin Baoxin Technology Co., Ltd. has executed a power of attorney regarding exercising all of its rights as the sole record shareholder of Fuzhou Financing Guarantee, both of which terms are substantially similar to the power of attorney described above.

        Equity Interest Pledge Agreements.    Pursuant to the equity interest pledge agreement entered among our WFOE, Shanghai Qiyu and Beijing Qibutianxia, Beijing Qibutianxia will pledge 100% equity interests in Shanghai Qiyu to our WFOE to guarantee the performance by Beijing Qibutianxia of its obligations under the exclusive option agreement, the powers of attorney and the loan agreement, as well as the performance by Shanghai Qiyu of its obligations under the exclusive option agreement, the powers of attorney and the exclusive consultation and service agreement (collectively, "Master Agreements"). In the event of a breach by Shanghai Qiyu or Beijing Qibutianxia of contractual obligations under the Master Agreements, our WFOE, as pledgee, will have the right to dispose of the pledged equity interests in Shanghai Qiyu. Beijing Qibutianxia will also undertake that, without the prior written consent of our WFOE, it will not dispose of, create or allow any encumbrance on the pledged equity interests.

        Our WFOE, Fuzhou Microcredit and Beijing Qibutianxia have entered into an equity interest pledge agreement, and our WFOE, Fuzhou Financing Guarantee and Beijing Zhongxin Baoxin Technology Co., Ltd. have entered into an equity interest pledge agreement, both of which terms are substantially similar to the equity interest pledge agreement described above.

        We are in the process to register the equity interest pledges described above with the competent office of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce in accordance with the PRC laws.

        Loan Agreement.    Pursuant to the loan agreement among our WFOE, Shanghai Qiyu and Beijing Qibutianxia, the shareholder of Shanghai Qiyu, our WFOE is entitled to provide interest-free loans, to the extent permitted by laws, regulations and industry policies of China, from time to time at such time and amount as it deems appropriate to Beijing Qibutianxia for the purpose of Shanghai Qiyu's business operation and development. Each of the loans made under this loan agreement has no fixed term, and unless otherwise agreed, our WFOE shall unilaterally decide when to withdraw the loans. The loan agreement shall remain in effect during Shanghai Qiyu's term (and any renewable term provided by the PRC law), and shall automatically terminate after our WFOE and/or other entities designated by our WFOE fully exercise all their rights under the exclusive option agreement.

        Our WFOE, Fuzhou Microcredit and Beijing Qibutianxia have entered into a loan agreement, and our WFOE, Fuzhou Financing Guarantee, Beijing Qibutianxia and Beijing Zhongxin Baoxin Technology Co., Ltd. have entered into a loan agreement, both of which terms are substantially similar to the loan agreement described above.

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Agreement that allows us to receive economic benefits from our VIEs

        Exclusive Consultation and Service Agreements.    Pursuant to the exclusive consultation and service agreement entered into between our WFOE and Shanghai Qiyu, our WFOE will have the exclusive right to provide Shanghai Qiyu with the consulting and technical services required by Shanghai Qiyu's business. Without our WFOE's prior written consent, Shanghai Qiyu may not accept any services subject to this agreement from any third party. Shanghai Qiyu will agree to pay our WFOE service fee at the amount which is adjusted at our WFOE's sole discretion by considering, among other things, the complexity of the services, the actual cost that may be incurred for providing such services, as well as the value and comparable price on the market of the service provided. Our WFOE would have the exclusive ownership of all the intellectual property rights created as a result of the performance of the exclusive consultation and service agreement, to the extent permitted by applicable PRC laws. To guarantee Shanghai Qiyu's performance of its obligations thereunder, Beijing Qibutianxia would pledge its equity interests in Shanghai Qiyu to our WFOE pursuant to the equity interest pledge agreement. Unless our WFOE terminates this agreement in advance, this agreement will remain effective for 10 years and will be automatically renewed for in a 10-year cycle unless such renewal was objected by our WFOE in writing. Shanghai Qiyu may not terminate this agreement unilaterally unless our WFOE commits gross negligence, fraud or other violations of applicable laws or is bankrupt.

        Our WFOE and Fuzhou Microcredit have entered into an exclusive consultation and service agreement, and our WFOE and Fuzhou Financing Guarantee have entered into an exclusive consultation and service agreement, both of which terms are substantially similar to the exclusive consultation and service agreement described above.

Agreements that provide us with the option to purchase the equity interests in and assets of our VIEs

        Exclusive Option Agreements.    Pursuant to the exclusive option agreement entered into among our WFOE, Shanghai Qiyu and Beijing Qibutianxia, Beijing Qibutianxia will irrevocably grant our WFOE an exclusive option to purchase or designate one or more persons to purchase, all or part of its equity interests in Shanghai Qiyu, and Shanghai Qiyu will irrevocably grant our WFOE an exclusive option to purchase all or part of its assets, subject to applicable PRC laws. Our WFOE or its designated person may exercise such options at the lowest price permitted under applicable PRC laws. Beijing Qibutianxia and Shanghai Qiyu will undertake that, without our WFOE's prior written consent, they will not, among other things, (i) create any pledge or encumbrance on any of Shanghai Qiyu's assets (ii) transfer or otherwise dispose of Shanghai Qiyu's assets, (iii) change Shanghai Qiyu's registered capital, (iv) amend Shanghai Qiyu's articles of association, (v) dispose of Shanghai Qiyu's assets or beneficial interest or (vi) merge Shanghai Qiyu with any other entity. In addition, Beijing Qibutianxia will undertake that, without our WFOE's prior written consent, it will not, among other things, create any pledge or encumbrance on its equity interests, or transfer or otherwise dispose of its equity interests in Shanghai Qiyu. Unless our WFOE terminates this agreement in advance, this agreement will remain effective for 10 years and will be automatically renewed for in a 10-year cycle unless such renewal was objected by our WFOE in writing. Other parties to this agreement may not terminate this agreement unilaterally.

        Our WFOE, Fuzhou Microcredit and Beijing Qibutianxia have entered into an exclusive option agreement, and our WFOE, Fuzhou Financing Guarantee and Beijing Zhongxin Baoxing Technology Co., Ltd. have entered into an exclusive option agreement, both of which terms are substantially similar to the exclusive option agreement described above.

        In the opinion of Commerce & Finance Law Offices, our PRC legal counsel:

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        However, our PRC legal counsel has also advised us that there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules. Accordingly, the PRC regulatory authorities may take a view that is contrary to the opinion of our PRC legal counsel. It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. If we or our VIEs are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government deems that the contractual arrangements in relation to our VIEs do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations" and "Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to us."

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SELECTED COMBINED AND CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA

        The following selected combined and consolidated statements of operations data for the period from the inception date to December 31, 2016 and the year ended December 31, 2017, selected combined and consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016 and 2017 and selected combined and consolidated cash flow data for the period from the inception date to December 31, 2016 and the year ended December 31, 2017 have been derived from our audited combined and consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected combined and consolidated statements of operations data for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2018, the selected combined and consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2018 and selected combined and consolidated cash flow data for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2018 are derived from our unaudited condensed combined and consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have prepared the unaudited condensed combined and consolidated financial statements on the same basis as our audited combined and consolidated financial statements. Our combined and consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Our historical results do not necessarily indicate results expected for any future periods. You should read this Selected Combined and Consolidated Financial and Operating Data section together with our combined and consolidated financial statements and the related notes and

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"Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 
  Period from the
inception date to
December 31,
  For the year ended
December 31,
  For the nine months ended
September 30,
 
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Selected Combined and Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

                                     

Net revenue

                                     

Revenue from loan facilitation services

    42     117,780     17,149     41,447     658,655     95,902  

Revenue from post-origination services

    18     50,478     7,350     17,763     282,281     41,101  

Financing income

        50,966     7,421     12,196     232,047     33,787  

Other service fee revenues

        89,828     13,079     2,963     212,582     30,953  

Total net revenue

    60     309,052     44,999     74,369     1,385,565     201,743  

Operating costs and expenses:(1)

                                     

Origination and servicing

    13,178     136,106     19,817     76,799     503,488     73,309  

Sales and marketing

    1,605     345,576     50,317     196,532     844,667     122,986  

General and administrative

    15,410     46,004     6,698     35,379     460,080     66,989  

Provision for loans receivable

        12,406     1,806     3,133     35,693     5,197  

Provision for financial assets receivable

                        593     86  

Total operating costs and expenses

    30,193     540,092     78,638     311,843     1,844,521     268,567  

Loss from operations

    (30,133 )   (231,040 )   (33,639 )   (237,474 )   (458,956 )   (66,824 )

Interest income

    3     2,421     353     1,375     6,469     942  

Foreign exchange losses

                    (3,145 )   (458 )

Other income (loss), net

        22     3     22     7,696     1,121  

Loss before provision for income taxes

    (30,130 )   (228,597 )   (33,283 )   (236,077 )   (447,936 )   (65,219 )

Income taxes benefit (expense)

    8,297     62,232     9,061     64,268     (21,400 )   (3,116 )

Net loss

    (21,833 )   (166,365 )   (24,222 )   (171,809 )   (469,336 )   (68,335 )

Deemed dividend

                    (3,097,733 )   (451,038 )

Net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders of the Company

    (21,833 )   (166,365 )   (24,222 )   (171,809 )   (3,567,069 )   (519,373 )

Net loss per ordinary share attributable to ordinary shareholders of 360 Finance, Inc

                                     

Basic

    (0.11 )   (0.84 )   (0.12 )   (0.87 )   (17.98 )   (2.62 )

Diluted

    (0.11 )   (0.84 )   (0.12 )   (0.87 )   (17.98 )   (2.62 )

Weighted average shares used in calculating net loss per ordinary share

                                     

Basic

    198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168  

Diluted

    198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168     198,347,168  

(1)
Share-based compensation expenses were allocated as follows:
 
   
  For the year
ended
December 31,
  For the nine
months ended
September 30,
 
 
  Period from the
inception date to
December 31,
2016
 
 
  2017   2017   2018  
 
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Origination and servicing expenses

                    144,847     21,090  

Sales and marketing expenses

                    10,679     1,555  

General and administrative expenses

                    374,498     54,528  

Total

                    530,024     77,173  

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        The following table presents our summary combined and consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016 and 2017 and September 30, 2018:

 
  As of December 31,   As of September 30,  
 
  2016   2017   2018  
 
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
  RMB
  US$
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Selected Combined and Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:

                               

Current assets:

                               

Cash and cash equivalents

    6,173     468,547     68,222     2,008,718     292,475  

Restricted cash

        487,882     71,037     539,820     78,599  

Financial assets receivable, net (net of allowance of RMB nil as of December 31, 2016 and 2017, and RMB593 as of September 30, 2018, respectively)

    5,399     140,356     20,436     451,010     65,668  

Security deposit prepaid to third-party guarantee companies

                435,700     63,439  

Loans receivable, net

        1,192,307     173,603     709,333     103,281  

Total current assets

    79,032     2,560,697     372,845     4,393,776     639,747  

Total non-current assets

    10,487     192,575     28,040     628,071     91,449  

Total assets

    89,519     2,753,272     400,885     5,021,847     731,196  

Current liabilities:

                               

Payable to investors of the consolidated trusts

        536,906     78,175          

Guarantee liabilities

    5,768     300,942     43,818     1,010,456     147,125  

Total current liabilities:

    111,352     2,351,470     342,381     2,951,804     429,791  

Total mezzanine equity

                4,491,545     653,982  

Total shareholder's (deficit) equity

    (21,833 )   401,802     58,504     (2,421,502 )   (352,577 )

Total liabilities, mezzanine equity and equity

    89,519     2,753,272     400,885     5,021,847     731,196  

        The following table presents our summary combined and consolidated cash flow data for the period from the inception date to December 31, 2016, the year ended December 31, 2017 and the nine months ended September 30, 2018:

 
  Period from the
inception date to
December 31,
  For the year ended
December 31,
  For the nine months ended
September 30,
 
 
  2016   2017   2017   2018  
 
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Selected Combined and Consolidated Cash Flow Data:

                                     

Net cash (used in)/provided by operating activities

    (68,486 )   (110,974 )   (16,159 )   264,565     415,118     60,442  

Net cash (used in)/provided by investing activities

    (2,391 )   (1,204,269 )   (175,345 )   (533,246 )   476,321     69,353  

Net cash provided by financing activities

    77,050     2,265,499     329,864     878,000     712,523     103,746  

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

    6,173     950,256     138,360     609,319     1,592,109     231,815  

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at the beginning of year/period

        6,173     899     6,173     956,429     139,259  

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at the end of year/period

    6,173     956,429     139,259     615,492     2,548,538     371,074  

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        The following table presents certain of our operating data for the periods or as of the dates indicated:

 
  For the three months ended/As of    
 
 
  December 31,
2016
  March 31,
2017
  June 30,
2017
  September 31,
2017
  December 31,
2017
  March 31,
2018
  June 30,
2018
  September 30,
2018
  Compound
quarterly
growth rate
 

Loan

                                                       

Loan origination volume (RMB million)              

    433     2,706     5,123     10,399     12,764     14,773     21,277     26,925     80.4 %

Outstanding loan balance (RMB million)              

    321     1,798     3,932     8,160     12,202     17,413     26,452     34,661     95.2 %

Repeat borrower contribution

    25.5 %   40.8 %   52.2 %   52.1 %   58.9 %   54.3 %   51.8 %   58.8 %   N/A  

Users/Borrowers

   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
 

Users with approved credit lines ('000)

    106     527     1,132     2,258     3,299     4,653     7,164     9,644     90.5 %

Cumulative borrowers ('000)

   
56
   
327
   
748
   
1,538
   
2,286
   
3,158
   
4,694
   
6,444
   
97.0

%

Non-GAAP Measures

        We use adjusted net loss, a non-GAAP financial measure, in evaluating our operating results and for financial and operational decision-making purposes. Adjusted net loss represents net loss excluding share-based compensation expenses, and such adjustment has no impact on income tax.

        We believe that adjusted net loss helps identify underlying trends in our business that could otherwise be distorted by the effect of certain expenses that we include in net loss. We believe that adjusted net loss provides useful information about our operating results, enhance the overall understanding of our past performance and future prospects and allow for greater visibility with respect to key metrics used by our management in its financial and operational decision-making.

        Adjusted net loss should not be considered in isolation or construed as an alternative to net loss or any other measure of performance or as an indicator of our operating performance. Investors are encouraged to review the historical non-GAAP financial measures to the most directly comparable GAAP measures. Adjusted net loss presented here may not be comparable to similarly titled measures presented by other companies. Other companies may calculate similarly titled measures differently, limiting their usefulness as comparative measures to our data. We encourage investors and others to review our financial information in its entirety and not rely on a single financial measure.

        The table below sets forth a reconciliation of our adjusted net loss to net loss for the periods indicated.